enhs660.Pesticides+and+Public+Health

enhs660.Pesticides+and+Public+Health - Pesticides...

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Pesticides Pesticides – economically justified poisons which affect target and non target species Global considerations (Circle of Poison Pesticides) Pesticide Resistance Changing use patterns (No-Till) Concerns in breast milk
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Pesticide Resistance
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Overview of Pesticide Use in the US In the US there are: • 50 manufacturers • 14 firms account for 85% of all pesticides sold in the US In 1983-2000: • 0.95 billion PAI were sold in the US with an estimated value of >$6 billion Agricultural Use – 77% Industry and Government – 16% Home and Garden – 7%
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1985 -1993 USEPA 960 AI Pesticides Registered in US Includes 240 Herbicides 225 Insecticides 35 Rodenticides 210 Disinfectants These AI pesticides are sold in >25,000 formulations In the US, 4.4 lbs. of pesticide is used per person/year
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Pesticide Regulations Historical Overview – 1906 – Pure Food Law – 1910 – Federal Insecticide Act – 1938 – Amendments to the Federal Insecticide Act 1947 – Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) – 1954 – Miller Amendment to the Food, Drug & Cosmetic Act (1906, 1938) – 1958 – Food Additives Amendment to the Food, Drug & Cosmetic Act (Dulaney Clause) – 1959 – Amendments to FIFRA – 1964 – Amendments to FIFRA – 1970 – FDA passes authority to EPA 1972 – The Federal Environmental Pesticide Control Act (FEPCA=FIFRA amended) – 1975, 1978, 1980, 1981 – Amendments to FIFRA amended Some buzz words: Pesticide Tolerance ADI NOEL
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CLASSES OF PESTCIDES Insecticides – pesticides that control insect pests 1 st Generation – Organochlorines = DDT (Legacy Chemicals – High KOW) 2 nd Generation – Organophospahtes – Malathion, Clorpyrifos - Carbamates – Sevin, Aldicarb 3 rd Generation - Pyrethroids – Fenvalerate - Insect Growth Regulators (IGRs) - Methoprene, Dimilin - Microbials – BTI (Bacillus thuringensis israeliensis), BTK, BS
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CLASSES OF PESTCIDES Herbicides – pesticides used to control plant pests (most widely used class of pesticides) - Atrazine ( Most widely used pesticide in the US ), Round- Up, & 2,4 D/2,4,5 T (Agent Orange) Fungicides – pesticides used to treat fungal pests - Pentachloraphenol (PCPs), Folpet, and Captan (Thaliamide Like Chemicals – birth defects) Biocides – pesticides used to control bacterial, viral & protozoan pests - Chlorine, Ozone, BrCl 2 Rodentacides – pesticides used to control rodent pests -Warfarin (4 Hydroxy Coumarin)
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Golf is a very big business in South Carolina - 350-plus golf courses statewide Golf generates more income than any other entertainment or recreation activity in the state. In 2007, golf accounted for more than $2.7
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This note was uploaded on 06/06/2011 for the course ENHS 660 taught by Professor Scott during the Fall '10 term at South Carolina.

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enhs660.Pesticides+and+Public+Health - Pesticides...

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