enhs+660.air+pollution+slides+adobe

enhs+660.air+pollution+slides+adobe - Components of Clean...

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Components of Clean Dry Air a Element Percent by Volume Nitrogen (N 2 ) 78.08 Oxygen (O 2 ) 20.94 Argon (Ar) 0.93 Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) 0.03 Ozone (O 3 ) Less than 0.00005 a. Small amounts (<0.002%) of neon, helium, methane, krypton and hydrogen are also present. Nondry air, of course, also has water vapor in it.
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Air Pollution Air Pollution – the discharge of undesirable physical, chemical or biological stressors into the atmosphere by natural and/or anthropogenic activities that may ultimately affect ecosystem and/or human health Historical History of Air Pollution -Early Man discovered fire - Mummies in Egypt had elevated levels of CO 2 -Medieval Governments investigated “Offensive Odors” -England (1285-1310) – 4 different commissions to Study “Foul Air” - Industrial Revolution(1600-1800s) – Single biggest source of air pollution -Contemporary Issues – Economic /human health effects
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Contemporary Historical Concerns Smog in Donora, PA in October, 1948 temperature inversion; 20 deaths and 5,900 ill Smog in London during 1952 4000 people killed in 4 days Smog in London during 1962 700 people killed Smog in New York City in 1953, 1963, and 1966 Causes 700 excess deaths
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Anatomy of Airways -Mouth/Nose -Nasal/Oral Passages -Pharynx -Larynx -Trachea -Bronchus -Bronchi -Bronchioles -Alveoli Body Defense Systems -Nasal Hairs -Mucous Secretions/Cilia -Macrophages -Decreasing Diameter of Airways
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Chronic Airway Resistance Swollen mucous membrane Obstructed bronchiole muscle in spasm thick secretions Normal bronchiole (X-section) Source: American Lung Association, Air Pollution Primer , 1969.
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trapped air ruptured alveolus Constricted or obstructed bronchiole tube Pulmonary Emphysema
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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Cause Percentage Contribution to COPD Prevention Potential Smoking 90 Entirely preventable Chronic respiratory infection 5 Mostly preventable Occupational/environmental 4 Many cases preventable Asthma, congenital heart or lung disease (cyctic fibrosis, etc.) 1 May not be preventable
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Types of Air Pollutants Asphyxiants – cause a lack of oxygen in the blood stream -Carbon Monoxide (CO) – combines with hemoglobin in the blood to prevent transport of oxygen and offloading of CO 2 (e.g. increased angina and enlarged heart) -10 PPM No Effect -100 PPM - Rush hour traffic (headaches/dizziness) -300-400 PPM - Vision, Nausea -750 PPM - Fatal -Hydrogen Sulfide (H 2 S) Irritants -Ozone (O 3 ) -Sulfur Oxides (SO x ) -Nitrogen Oxides (NO x )
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Level of carbon monoxide (mg/m 3 ) Estimated percentage of hemoglobin tied up as caboxyhemoglobin after 8-10 hrs a 0 0.4 5 1.0 10 1.6 (1972 air-quality standard and resulting carboxyhemoglobin) 20 2.9 30 4.1 40 5.4 45 6.0 (level for a moderate smoker) 50 6.6 60 7.8 a. This is the percentage of hemoglobin to which carbon monoxide is attached. This hemoglobin is not available to carry oxygen to the cells.
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enhs+660.air+pollution+slides+adobe - Components of Clean...

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