enhs660.toxicology2

enhs660.toxicology2 - Definition of Toxicology Toxicology...

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Definition of Toxicology Toxicology is defined as “The study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms.” Toxicology is the “science of poisions”
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Basic Assumption of Toxicology “All substances are poisons; there is none that is not a poison. The right dose is what differentiates a poison from a remedy.”
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Historical Basis of Toxicology Vedas (900 B.C.) (Hindu medicine) Theophrastus (307-256 B.C.) (Greek medicine) Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) (Greek medicine) Hippocrates (400 B.C.) (Greek medicine) Ebers Papyrus (1500 B.C.) (Egyptian medicine) Galen (A.D. 131-200) Dioscorides (ca. A.D. 50) Maimonides (A.D. 1135-1204) Avicenna (A.D. 980-1037) Paraceisus (1493-1541) Kobert (1854-1918) Lewin (1854-1929) Orfila (1787-1853) Christison (1797-1882)
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EBERS PAPYRUS (1500 BC) First written record of Toxicology Lex Cornalia – law passed in early Rome making it illegal to poison some one
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History of Toxicology: Paracelsus Paracelsus was one of the founders of modern toxicology. Active during the time of da Vinci and Copernicus (early 16th century). His contributions included the dose- response relationship and the notion of target organ specificity of chemicals.
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History of Toxicology: Matieu Orfila In the 1800s, he authored a number of significant works, among them Trait des poisons (1813). This work described various types of poisons and their bodily effects, a development that contributed to the foundations of forensic toxicology.
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Types of Toxicology -Descriptive Toxicology -Mechanistic Toxicology -Regulatory Toxicology -Forensic Toxicology -Clinical Toxicology -Environmental Toxicology
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Environmental Toxicology Environmental toxicology examines how environmental exposures to chemical pollutants may present risks to biological organisms, particularly animals, birds, and fish as well as mammals including man.
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Toxicology Habers Law E= D x T Where E= Effect, D= Dose, Acute Toxicity -LD50 = Lethal Dose 50% -LC50 = Lethal Conc. 50% -ED50/EC50 = Effective Dose or Conc. where the effect is a sublethal end point other than death Additive Toxicity Chronic Toxicity - Carcinogens - No Dose Threshold Dose-Response Curve
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Two Types of Dose-Response Curves One for the responses of an individual to a chemical One for a population
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Individual Dose-Response Curve Source: Reprinted with permission from AE Marczewski and M Kamrin, Toxicology for the citizen, 2nd Edition. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University, Center for Integrative Toxicology, p. 5, 1991.
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Population Dose-Response Curve 4 Things Defined 1. Nontoxic Level (NOEC) 2. Threshold of Toxcity (LOEC) 3. Mid Point of Toxicity (LD50 or LC50) 4. Upper Limit for High Toxicity (LD90) 1 2 3 4
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Environmental Toxicology: Terminology Poisons - “…any agent capable of producing a deleterious response in a biological system.” Toxicants - Toxic substances that are man- made or result from human (anthropogenic)
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enhs660.toxicology2 - Definition of Toxicology Toxicology...

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