enhs660.lecture2.adobe+092010

enhs660.lecture2.adobe+092010 - Lecture 2 Ecology,...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 2 Ecology, Components of Ecosystems & Energy Flow and Utilization 1. Biosphere = that portion of the planet Earth where life exists -Life Ranges from 36,000 feet below sea level to 30,000 feet above sea level -Most Life Exists in a region from 600 feet below sea level (photic zone of the ocean) to 20,000 feet above sea level (permanent snow line in tropical and subtropical regions) - Early life forms were bacteria growing in water 2. Ecosystems = functional units of nature which reflect the complex manner in which living things interact with one another and nonliving components of the environment to process energy and recycle nutrients-Scaling issue is complex E.g. Tire with water --->Bacteria ---> Mosquitoes (Small) Oceans (Larger & Complex)-Ecosystems have no definitive size limitations but rather than emphasize the interdependence between living and nonliving things. Stiling (1992) states that any of the above examples may be considered ecosystems so long as living and nonliving elements are present and are interacting to process energy & materials . 3. Components of Ecosystems A) Biotic Components = Living portions of ecosystems Autotrophs ----- > Herbivores ----> Omnivores ----->Carnivores Decomposers or Detritovores Terms : Autotrophs = Self feeding (e.g. sunlight + photosynthesis) = Producers Heterotrophs = Different Feeding (Herbivores, Omnivores & Carnivores) = Consumers Detritus = Decomposed waste remains of plants and animals Detritovores = Bacteria, fungi and invertebrates (e.g. termites) which degrade animal and plants into usable waste materials. Important in the recycling of C, N and P B). Abiotic Components = nonliving components of ecoystems e,..g. Water, Minerals, Weather, Elements Chemical Components- Organic (w/ C) vs Inorganic (w/o C) Physical Components- Temperature, Light, Wind=Energy 4. Energy flow in ecosystems is primarily focused on the ability of the biotic component being able to exchange organic and inorganic matter through living things. 5. Biological Levels of Organization of Biotic Components A. Ecological Components Producers -------------------------------- > Consumers Decomposers B. Biological Organization Cell Tissue Lab Studies = Toxicology Organ ( Suborganism Level = Early Organ System Warning)----------- Organism Lab/Field Studies =------------- Toxicology(Organism Species Level) Population Community Field Studies = Epidemiology Ecosystem (Population Level) 6. When evaluating the effects of a stressor on an ecosystem, it is important that we make an evaluation at each of these biological levels, before an adequate regulatory decision can be made. TERMS Lethal Effects- adverse effects from a stressor which results in the death of an organism and may be manifest at the Organisms -----> Species ---> Population ---> Community ----> Ecosystem Level depending upon the severity of the stressor....
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enhs660.lecture2.adobe+092010 - Lecture 2 Ecology,...

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