enhs660_lecture1_part2

enhs660_lecture1_part2 - Environmental Risk Transition This...

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Environmental Risk Transition This term characterizes changes in environmental risks that happen as a consequence of economic development in the less developed regions of the world. Before transition occurs: poor food, air, and water quality. Environmental Issues of infectious disease.
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Environmental Risk Transition (continued) After transition: Problems of household risk are brought under control. Society becomes more developed causing a new set of environmental problems take hold. Examples include release of: Acid rain precursors Ozone-depleting chemicals Greenhouse gases Disease issues transition from infectious disease to issues of chronic disease (e.g. heart disease and cancer).
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Ecosystem Health (Rapport et al., 1998) Recognition that the health of the ecosystem may affect public/human health Environmental Stressors -Chemical Contaminants -Over-harvesting of Natural Resources -Introduction of Exotic Species -Modification of Natural Perturbations
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Ecosystem Health (EH) EH can be defined using objective criteria Diagnosis of ecosystem condition Need to define early warning indicators of EH EH management and practices emphasize a preventive vs. restorative approaches
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Ecosystem Health Criteria Vigor Resilience Organization (species richness/diversity) Maintenance of Ecosystem Services Harvest Management Options Reduced Subsidies (e.g. agricultural subsidies) Damage to Neighboring ecosystems Impacts on Human Health
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Shortcoming of Environmental Management EH continues to deteriorate after management intervention (e.g. Ches. Bay) Env. Management is driven by limited disciplinary models (e.g. engineering, economic models; contaminant specific objectives vs. ecosystem specific objectives) Single vs. Multiple Stressors Holistic Integrated Management is needed
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Top 10 Causes of Death and Disability ( Harvard School of Public Health) 1990 1. Respiratory Infections 2. Diarrheal Diseases 3. Complications at Birth 4. Severe Depression 5. Heart Disease 6. Stroke 7. Tuberculosis 8. Measles 9. Traffic Accidents 10. Congenital Anomalies 2020 1. Heart Disease 2. Severe Depression 3. Traffic Accidents 4. Stroke 5. Chronic Pulmonary Disease 6. Respiratory Infections 7. Tuberculosis 8. War Injuries 9. Diarrheal Diseases 10. HIV/AIDS (MARSA?)
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Man’s Impact on the Environment Life first evolved some 3 billion years ago. After some 2.99999 billion years of evolution man appeared. Thus man is a new species whose impact has been most recent. Impact of early man on the environment:
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enhs660_lecture1_part2 - Environmental Risk Transition This...

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