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Sensation and Perception

Sensation and Perception - Sensation and Sensation and...

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Unformatted text preview: Sensation and Sensation and Perception S & P S & P Sensation – sensory receptors and nervous Sensation system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment from Perception – organization and interpretation of Perception sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events meaningful Vision Vision Eye Components Cornea Pupil Iris Lens Retina Fovea Blind Spot Pigment Epithelium Photoreceptors Photoreceptors - Located on the retina Located Cones Color 6 Million Center Not sensitive to dim light Sensitive to detail Rods No Color 120 Million Periphery Sensitive to dim light Not detail sensitive Levels of Processing Levels of Processing Rods and Cones Bipolar Cells Ganglion Cells Optic Nerve Thalamus Visual Cortex (In occipital lobe) Color Vision Color Vision Trichromatic Vision – Trichromatic there are 3 types of color receptors (cones) sensitive to separate colors; red, blue, and green green Color Vision Color Vision Opponent-process theory – opposing retinal Opponent-process processes (red-green, yellow-blue, whiteprocesses black) enable color vision. For example, some black) cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red and vice versa. red Color Vision Color Vision Color Constancy – perceiving familiar objects Color as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object. by Perception Perception Can be influenced by: 1. Ambiguous stimuli 2. Context 3. Previous experience 4. Expectancies Form Perception Form Perception Figure-ground – the Figure-ground organization of the visual field into objects (figures) that stand out from their surroundings (ground). (ground). Form Perception Form Perception Grouping – the perceptual tendency to organize Grouping stimuli into coherent groups stimuli Proximity – nearby objects go together Similarity – similar objects go together Continuity – we perceive smooth, continuous Continuity patterns rather than discontinuous patterns Connectedness – when uniformed or linked we Connectedness perceive items as a single unit perceive Form Perception Form Perception Closure – we fill in gaps Closure to create a complete, whole object whole Depth Perception Depth Perception Binocular Cues Retinal disparity – The greater the difference Retinal between the two images the retina receives of an object, the closer the object is to the viewer. an Convergence – the extent to which the eyes Convergence converge inward when looking at an object. converge Depth Perception Depth Perception Monocular Cues Interposition – object in front blocks Relative size – if objects same size, the one Relative that casts a smaller retinal image is farther away away Relative height – objects higher in the field of Relative vision are farther away vision Depth Perception Depth Perception Interposition Depth Perception Relative Size Depth Perception Depth Perception Monocular Cues Relative motion – As Relative we move stable objects move with us move Depth Perception Depth Perception Monocular cues Linear perspective – parallel lines converge Linear with distance with Light and shadow – nearby objects reflect Light more light to our eyes. Light comes from above above Depth Perception Depth Perception Light and Shadow ...
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