Drugs - Drugs: Drugs: Facts, Figures, & Myths History...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Drugs: Drugs: Facts, Figures, & Myths History History Deliberate fermentation of alcohol began Deliberate around 6000 BC in Black Sea region around N. and S. American Indians first to use N. tobacco – Columbus noted Indians smoking cigars on San Salvador in 1492 cigars S. American Indians chewed coca leaves as far S. back as 2500 BC back Cont. Cont. Opium poppy cultivated in Mediterranean in Opium 6000 BC – First written reference (4000 BC) comes from Sumeria – “joy plant”. comes Chinese emperor Shen Nung prescribed Chinese marijuana for malaria, gout, and gas pains, 5000 years ago 5000 Aztecs used psilocybin (mushrooms) and Aztecs mescaline in religious ceremonies as far back as 8,000 years as Facts Facts National Household Survey on Drug Abuse National (2001) (2001) In 2001, 15.9 mil Americans were current In illicit drug users (7.1 % of the pop. over 12) – 56% of these only used marijuana 56% 3.2 mil (2.5%) were drug dependent 11 mil (5.9%) were alcohol dependent 18.4% of people aged 18-25 are alcohol or 18.4% drug dependent Cont. Cont. Percentage of people who reported using each of Percentage the following drugs in the past year who are classified as dependent on that drug. classified Heroin 50% (0.2 mil) 50% (0.2 Cocaine 24.9% (1.0 mil) Marijuana 16.5% (3.5 mil) Pain Relievers 11.8% (1.0 mil) Alcohol 9.3% (13.4 mil) Cont. Cont. Illicit drug use correlated with education level 4.3% of college graduates reported current use 7.6% of high school dropouts reported current 7.6% use use College students more likely to try drugs College (47.2% vs. 32%) (47.2% 20.6% of college students are current users vs 20.6% 21.7% of non-students of the same age 21.7% 17.1% of unemployed were current drug users 2000 National Household 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse Use of illicit drug during lifetime? 38.9% In last year? 11% In last month? 6.3% Cont. Cont. Use of marijuana during lifetime? 34.2% In last year? 8.3% In last month? 4.8% 21.6% of high school seniors had smoked marijuana 21.6% over the last month over 7% of 12-17 yr olds had smoked marijuana over the 7% last month last Cont. Cont. Any drug but marijuana during lifetime? 23.6% In last year? 5.8% In last month? 2.6% www.samhsa.gov/oas/nhsda.htm#NHSDAinfo www.samhsa.gov/oas/nhsda.htm#NHSDAinfo Lifetime cocaine? Heroin? 11.2 % 1.2% Last year? 1.5% 0.1% Last month? 0.5% 0.1% Between 1988-1995 Americans spent 57.3 Between billion dollars on illicit drugs. billion Drug Dependency Drug Dependency “. . . you’re never going to stop the human need you’re for release through altered consciousness. The government could take away all the drugs in the world and people would spin around on their lawn until they fell down and saw God.” their - Dennis Miller Models of Drug Abuse Models of Drug Abuse Disease – Addicts do not have control over Disease their drug use, therefore they are “sick.” their - Drug abuse is not normal - Some become addicted, others don’t Limits: 1. No mechanism has been found. 2. How can a disease make people take drugs? I. Cont. Cont. II. Physical Dependence – Addicts continue II. taking drugs to avoid unpleasant withdrawal effects (tobacco, alcohol, opiates, barbiturates) that occur due to physical dependence. that Limits: 1. Heroin and other drugs can cause addiction 1. without physical dependence. Physical Dependence cont. Physical Dependence cont. 2. Discontinuation of cocaine, marijuana, and 2. hallucinogens do not cause withdrawal. hallucinogens Cont. Cont. Positive Reinforcement – People take drugs Positive for their reinforcing effects and because they produce pleasure. they Limits: 1. Circular reasoning I. Cont. Cont. 1. 2. Pleasure derived from drug decreases over Pleasure time while drug-taking (craving) increases. time People will work for low doses of cocaine or People heroin that don’t produce subjective effects. heroin Cont. Cont. Incentive-Sensitization – Drugs create Incentive-Sensitization neural adaptations in brain regions responsible for reward and these regions become sensitive to drugs. These regions are responsible for wanting but not liking the drug. the Limits: 1. How do we differentiate bet. wanting and 1. liking in animals? I. The War on Drugs The War on Drugs “Cocaine is often the direct incentive to the Cocaine crime of rape by the Negroes….opium leads white women to cohabitating with Chinese.” white - Congressional Opium Commission (1908) - 75 % of Americans believe the War on Drugs 75 isn’t working isn’t 33 % of respondents to a USA Today poll 33 were for the legalization of marijuana were War cont. War cont. 30 mil Americans use illicit drugs per year Average prison sentence for murder in US: 6.3 Average years years Average prison sentence for a marijuana Average charge in US: 10 years charge 700,000 arrests per year for marijuana charges Non-violent drug-related offenses have Non-violent increased 800% since 1980 increased War cont. War cont. Number of Americans who have tried Number marijuana: 70 mil marijuana: Average annual sale of marijuana in US: $32 Average billion billion Money made on this if sales tax = 6%: 1.9 Money billion billion Estimated savings to US if drugs legalized: Estimated $50 billion $50 War cont. War cont. % of Dutch 10th graders who have tried marijuana: 28 % US: 41% marijuana: Daily marijuana use in Holland is less than 1% Daily of the population of Only 15-16% of people who have tried Only cocaine become addicted cocaine DARE doesn’t work Costs of Drug Abuse Costs of Drug Abuse Fiscal 1. US gov’t spent $18.1 billion in 2001 to curb US drug abuse drug 2. In 1992, drug and alcohol abuse had an In estimated $245.7 billion economic impact ($97.7 for drugs) ($97.7 Costs cont. Costs cont. Workforce 1. 20% of workers in US use dangerous drugs 20% while at work ($120 billion in losses) while 2. Drug dependent employees 16 times as likely Drug to miss work to Costs cont. Costs cont. Crime 1. In 1990, 30-45% of all prison sentences In related to drugs related 2. Prison cells cost bet $12,000-52,000 per year 3. In 1999, 50% of juvenile male and 40% of In juvenile female arrestees tested positive for marijuana. marijuana. 4. 20.8% of adults on parole and 24.4% of 20.8% adults on probation reported current drug use adults Costs cont. Costs cont. Pregnancy 1. 3.7% of females reported illicit drug use 3.7% while pregnant while 2. 15.1% of preg females aged 15-17 reported 15.1% illicit drug use (Non-preg = 14.1%) illicit 3. 350,000 fetuses exposed prenatally to illicit 350,000 drugs per year drugs 4. Treatment for drug-exposed babies ranges Treatment from $7,500-150,000 per baby from Costs cont. Costs cont. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. CA spends $178 mil a year on “crack babies” 18.8% of females used alcohol while preg FAS leading environmental cause of mental FAS retardation in the Western world (6,000retardation 8,000 born each year) 20.4% used tobacco while preg – SIDS 50-80% of child abuse cases related to drug 50-80% or alcohol use or Costs cont. Costs cont. Health 1. In 1995, there were 531,800 drug-related In hospital visits hospital 2. In 1999, there were 168,763 cocaine-related In emergency room visits emergency 3. In 1999, there were 19,102 deaths from legal In and illegal drugs and Costs cont. Costs cont. 4. 70% of female AIDS cases are drug related – 4. either sharing infected needles or having a sexual partner who shares infected needles sexual ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 06/06/2011 for the course PSYC 101 taught by Professor Cusaac during the Spring '08 term at South Carolina.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online