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Unformatted text preview: Drugs:
Facts, Figures, & Myths History
History Deliberate fermentation of alcohol began
around 6000 BC in Black Sea region
N. and S. American Indians first to use
tobacco – Columbus noted Indians smoking
cigars on San Salvador in 1492
S. American Indians chewed coca leaves as far
back as 2500 BC
Cont. Opium poppy cultivated in Mediterranean in
6000 BC – First written reference (4000 BC)
comes from Sumeria – “joy plant”.
Chinese emperor Shen Nung prescribed
marijuana for malaria, gout, and gas pains,
5000 years ago
Aztecs used psilocybin (mushrooms) and
mescaline in religious ceremonies as far back
as 8,000 years
National Household Survey on Drug Abuse
(2001) In 2001, 15.9 mil Americans were current
illicit drug users (7.1 % of the pop. over 12) –
56% of these only used marijuana
56% 3.2 mil (2.5%) were drug dependent 11 mil (5.9%) were alcohol dependent 18.4% of people aged 18-25 are alcohol or
drug dependent Cont.
Percentage of people who reported using each of
the following drugs in the past year who are
classified as dependent on that drug.
Pain Relievers 11.8%
(13.4 mil) Cont.
Illicit drug use correlated with education level 4.3% of college graduates reported current use 7.6% of high school dropouts reported current
use College students more likely to try drugs
(47.2% vs. 32%)
(47.2% 20.6% of college students are current users vs
21.7% of non-students of the same age
21.7% 17.1% of unemployed were current drug users 2000 National Household 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse
Use of illicit drug during lifetime?
In last year?
In last month?
Use of marijuana during lifetime?
In last year?
In last month?
4.8% 21.6% of high school seniors had smoked marijuana
over the last month
over 7% of 12-17 yr olds had smoked marijuana over the
Any drug but marijuana during lifetime?
In last year?
In last month?
www.samhsa.gov/oas/nhsda.htm#NHSDAinfo Lifetime cocaine?
0.1% Between 1988-1995 Americans spent 57.3
billion dollars on illicit drugs.
billion Drug Dependency
“. . . you’re never going to stop the human need
for release through altered consciousness. The
government could take away all the drugs in
the world and people would spin around on
their lawn until they fell down and saw God.”
- Dennis Miller Models of Drug Abuse
Models of Drug Abuse
Disease – Addicts do not have control over
their drug use, therefore they are “sick.”
- Drug abuse is not normal
- Some become addicted, others don’t
No mechanism has been found.
How can a disease make people take drugs?
II. Physical Dependence – Addicts continue
taking drugs to avoid unpleasant withdrawal
effects (tobacco, alcohol, opiates, barbiturates)
that occur due to physical dependence.
1. Heroin and other drugs can cause addiction
without physical dependence. Physical Dependence cont.
Physical Dependence cont.
2. Discontinuation of cocaine, marijuana, and
hallucinogens do not cause withdrawal.
Positive Reinforcement – People take drugs
for their reinforcing effects and because
they produce pleasure.
1. 2. Pleasure derived from drug decreases over
time while drug-taking (craving) increases.
People will work for low doses of cocaine or
heroin that don’t produce subjective effects.
Incentive-Sensitization – Drugs create
neural adaptations in brain regions
responsible for reward and these regions
become sensitive to drugs. These regions
are responsible for wanting but not liking
1. How do we differentiate bet. wanting and
liking in animals?
I. The War on Drugs
The War on Drugs
“Cocaine is often the direct incentive to the
crime of rape by the Negroes….opium leads
white women to cohabitating with Chinese.”
- Congressional Opium Commission (1908)
- 75 % of Americans believe the War on Drugs
33 % of respondents to a USA Today poll
were for the legalization of marijuana
were War cont.
War cont. 30 mil Americans use illicit drugs per year
Average prison sentence for murder in US: 6.3
Average prison sentence for a marijuana
charge in US: 10 years
700,000 arrests per year for marijuana charges
Non-violent drug-related offenses have
increased 800% since 1980
increased War cont.
War cont. Number of Americans who have tried
marijuana: 70 mil
Average annual sale of marijuana in US: $32
Money made on this if sales tax = 6%: 1.9
Estimated savings to US if drugs legalized:
$50 War cont.
War cont. % of Dutch 10th graders who have tried
marijuana: 28 % US: 41%
Daily marijuana use in Holland is less than 1%
of the population
Only 15-16% of people who have tried
cocaine become addicted
DARE doesn’t work Costs of Drug Abuse
Costs of Drug Abuse
1. US gov’t spent $18.1 billion in 2001 to curb
2. In 1992, drug and alcohol abuse had an
estimated $245.7 billion economic impact
($97.7 for drugs)
($97.7 Costs cont.
1. 20% of workers in US use dangerous drugs
while at work ($120 billion in losses)
2. Drug dependent employees 16 times as likely
to miss work
to Costs cont.
1. In 1990, 30-45% of all prison sentences
related to drugs
2. Prison cells cost bet $12,000-52,000 per year
3. In 1999, 50% of juvenile male and 40% of
juvenile female arrestees tested positive for
4. 20.8% of adults on parole and 24.4% of
adults on probation reported current drug use
adults Costs cont.
1. 3.7% of females reported illicit drug use
2. 15.1% of preg females aged 15-17 reported
illicit drug use (Non-preg = 14.1%)
3. 350,000 fetuses exposed prenatally to illicit
drugs per year
4. Treatment for drug-exposed babies ranges
from $7,500-150,000 per baby
from Costs cont.
5. CA spends $178 mil a year on “crack babies”
18.8% of females used alcohol while preg
FAS leading environmental cause of mental
retardation in the Western world (6,000retardation
8,000 born each year)
20.4% used tobacco while preg – SIDS
50-80% of child abuse cases related to drug
or alcohol use
or Costs cont.
1. In 1995, there were 531,800 drug-related
2. In 1999, there were 168,763 cocaine-related
emergency room visits
3. In 1999, there were 19,102 deaths from legal
and illegal drugs
and Costs cont.
4. 70% of female AIDS cases are drug related –
either sharing infected needles or having a
sexual partner who shares infected needles
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This note was uploaded on 06/06/2011 for the course PSYC 101 taught by Professor Cusaac during the Spring '08 term at South Carolina.
- Spring '08