Igneous rocks - Igneous Rocks 1. Produced through the...

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Igneous Rocks 1. Produced through the cooling and crystallization of a magma . 1. Magma – hot, molten rock produced below the earth’s surface where temperatures are very high (magma chamber); temperature and pressure increase with increasing depth below the earth’s surface causing rocks to melt.
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Crystallization of a Magma 1. In order for a magma to crystallize, it must lose heat. 2. Get a change of state from a liquid to a solid (analogous to the freezing of water). 3. The rate at which the magma cools controls the size of the crystals that are produced.
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Factors Controlling the Crystallization of a Magma 1. Chemical composition of the magma the higher the Fe and Mg content, the higher the temperature of crystallization. Example: a magma containing 20% Fe and 15% Mg will crystallize at a higher temperature than a magma with 15% Fe and 10% Mg Analogous to the different freezing points of seawater and fresh water
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Factors Controlling the Crystallization of a Magma 2. Pressure The higher the pressure, the higher the temperature of crystallization; pressure increases with depth. 3. Availability of water Water inhibits crystallization; magma will crystallize at a lower temperature if water is present.
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Unregistered iClickers 1184F065 1CA2902E 6A30FAA 15AC2B92 1DB0AA07 6A353F6 168064F2 1EE8E412 6AF5FF6 1769CCB2 1EF0C927 6B0C670 19634B31 1EFAC420 7BBC874 19881A8B 1F46376E 81DA3B6 1AA13388 627E3C2
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Rock Cycle
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Igneous Rock Formation 1. Extrusive (Volcanic) form at the earth’s surface associated with a rapid cooling of magma 1. Intrusive (Plutonic) form below the earth’s surface associated with a slow cooling of magma
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Landforms Associated with Igneous Rock Formation 1. Batholith - intrusive 2. Dikes - intrusive 3. Sills - intrusive 4. Laccolith - intrusive 5. Flows - extrusive 6. Volcanoes - extrusive
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Igneous Rock Bodies Laccolith Batholith Sill Dike Volcano
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Igneous Features and Landforms
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Exposed batholith in Chile
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Sierra Nevada Batholith
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Classification of Igneous Rocks Igneous rocks are commonly classified based on: 1. where they form (intrusive or extrusive), 2. their chemical composition, 3. their texture (size of crystals)
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Composition of Igneous Rocks 1. Ultramafic very low in silica (SiO 2 ) very high in MgO and FeO 2. Mafic low in silica high in MgO and FeO 3. Intermediate high in silica low in MgO and FeO 4. Felsic Very high in silica Very low in FeO and MgO SiO 2 increases MgO & FeO decreases
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Igneous Rock Textures Texture – refers to the size , shape and arrangement of crystals 1. Glassy Texture no crystals produced from very rapid cooling of a magma example: obsidian
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Glassy Texture
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Igneous Rock Textures (cont.) 2. Aphanitic microscopic crystals equigranular result of rapid cooling of a magma typical of extrusive rocks
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Aphanitic Texture
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Igneous Rock Textures (cont.) 3. Phaneritic macroscopic crystals equigranular produced from the slow cooling of a magma typical of intrusive rocks
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Phaneritic Texture
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Igneous Rock Textures (cont.) 1. Porphorytic
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Igneous rocks - Igneous Rocks 1. Produced through the...

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