Unformatted text preview: Chapter 6
Observing Behavior Quantitative vs. Qualitative Quantitative vs. Qualitative approaches Quantitative approach is concerned with numeric collection and analysis of data. Focuses on behaviors that can be easily quantified. Assign numeric value to a response or behavior.
Requires large samples Quantitative vs. Qualitative Quantitative vs. Qualitative approaches Qualitative approach is concerned with real behaviors; usually case studies and naturalistic observations.
Small groups and limited settings Describe behaviors as they appear Data are nonnumerical and expressed in language and/or images Quantitative and Qualitative approaches are not always mutually exclusive. Naturalistic observation the researcher observes real people’s behavior in their natural setting. observation issues Should the researcher reveal his or her intentions? Concealing is less obtrusive but may invade privacy.
Do you debrief in the social setting? Limitations of Naturalistic Observation Cannot be used to study all issues Less useful when studying welldefined hypotheses under precisely specific conditions Must constantly reanalyze and revise hypotheses A negative case analysis may be necessary to understand that observations that do not fit the explanatory structure Can be very timeconsuming and expensive Systematic observation careful observation of one or more behaviors in a particular setting looking for specific behaviors
very quantifiable. Issues with Systematic Observation Coding data system of coding behaviors based on a predetermined set of rules
Equipment Should you video tape the behaviors or should you just record them as you see them?
Reactivity the presence of an observer will alter people’s behavior.
Reliability interrater reliability must be 80% agreement or higher.
Sampling Will the data be more valid if the observations span a long period of time or short (single observations)? P.116 Case studies an extremely detailed description of an individual. advantages provides large amounts of data Gain great insights about the psychological issues such as memory, language, and social interaction.
Valuable in informing us of conditions that are rare or unusual Limitations very, very time consuming difficult to deal with the large amount of data Archival research analyzes previous research to answer a research question. statistical records large collections of numeric data. Example U.S. Census
survey archives survey data is stored on computers to be used repeatedly. Written records diaries, letters, and speeches; used by historians and political scientists.
Mass communication records books, magazines, newspapers, TV shows, etc.
Content analysis of documents provides a coding system for the mentioned types of archival research gives raters a starting point for their analysis. This is rare for older documents. Identify the type of research
Identify the type of research Researchers conducted an indepth study with certain 9/11 victims to understand the psychological impact of the attack on the World Trade Center in 2001
Answer Case Study Researchers recorded the time it took drivers in college parking lots to back out of a parking space and compared the time when another car was waiting to the time when another car was not waiting on the space
Answer Systematic Observation Contents of matewanted personal ads in three major cities were coded to determine whether men or women differ in terms of their self
Answer Archival Research The researcher spent over a year meeting with and interviewing Aileen Wuomos, the infamous female serial killer who was the subject of the film Monster, to construct a psychobiography.
Answer Case Study Researchers examined unemployment rates and the incidence of domestic violence police calls in six cities
Answer Archival Research A group of researchers studied recycling behavior at three local parks over a sixmonth period. They concealed their presence and kept detailed field notes.
Answer Naturalistic Observation ...
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- Spring '11
- researcher, naturalistic observation, archival research, Answer Naturalistic Observation, Assign numeric value, observation careful observation