Bio 2 Exam 1 Outline

Bio 2 Exam 1 Outline - 06:41 Classification – Chapter 23...

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Unformatted text preview: 06:41 Classification – Chapter 23 I. Classification systems • Is just any group of organisms called a taxon ? o A taxon is a group of organisms at a particular [taxonomic] level • What is the relationship between taxonomy and systematics ? o Taxonomy – the science of naming, describing, and classifying organisms o Systematics – study of diversity of organisms and their evolutionary relationships • What was the system of classification originally established by Linnaeus ? o Natural classification – based on discoveries and objective evidence o Artificial classification – constructed for convenience • Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species II. The species • How does the biological species concept differ from the morphospecies concept? Do they always lead to different conclusions? Why or why not? o Biological species – A population or group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed with one another in nature to produce fertile offspring, but cannot successfully interbreed with members of other populations o Morphospecies – species defined by its anatomical/physical form o A lot of the time, they lead to different conclusions. Morphologically, butterflies are grouped with birds, but biologically, they are derived from different ancestors. III. Evolution • Give an example of a character state . o A character state is a specific defined attribute of a species (ex. Short legs or blue eyes) • How can homologous characters be distinguished from analogous characters ? Which are a consequence of convergent evolution ? o Homologous character – derived from the same ancestor o Analogous character – similar because they are used in similar ways—due to convergent evolution • If a classification system is entirely based on phylogeny , are the taxa monophyletic or polyphyletic ? o Monophyletic ANIMAL DIVERSITY I AND II I. Kingdom Protista • A. Algae (plant-like protists discussed in 101) • B. “Protozoa” (animal-like protists) o What is meant by nutrition through ingestion ? Taking food into the body o Which protozoa have a test ? Foraminiferans, actinopods o 1. Amoebas What is the function of pseudopodia ? Used for locomotion and food capture o 2. Actinopods (radiolarians) How do actinopods use their axopods They project them for feeding and to help them float o 3. Foraminiferans Calcium carbonate test, extend pseudopodia from holes for feeding o 4. Flagellates – polyphyletic – 9 + 2 microtubules o 5. Ciliates What happens to the macronucleus and the micronucleus when ciliates undergo conjugation ? Macronucleus disintegrates Micronucleus undergoes meiosis forming four haploid nuclei. Three of these degenerate, leaving one, which divides mitotically to form two identical haploid nuclei. One of these remains within the cell, and the other nucleus crosses through the oral region into the other individual. The migrant haploid micronucleus fuses with the stationary haploid nucleus in...
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This note was uploaded on 04/04/2008 for the course BIO 102 taught by Professor Brey during the Spring '08 term at Rutgers.

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Bio 2 Exam 1 Outline - 06:41 Classification – Chapter 23...

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