Bio 102 Lecture Notes

Bio 102 Lecture Notes - Biology First Lecture Martin's...

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Biology First Lecture Martin’s Number: 445-0778 Administrative Office Hours Doolittle 137 (Busch Campus) Tues 3:00 – 4:30 Thurs 3:30 – 5:00 Lecture Review: 1/29 through 2/26 Busch MSLC Tues 1:40 – 2:40pm Taxon (pl. taxa): Any group we formally place organisms into. (i.e. Protista, Fungi. .) Systematics: Includes Taxonomy but goes beyond it. –Also includes Phylogeny Our Modern Classification System: Natural Classification System --Natural Classification System. Used to be an artificial classification system . Carl Von Linnaeus (1707-1778): Father of modern classification. Linnaeus’ system: Taxonomic levels: Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Order Genus Species Origin of Species (1859): Book by Darwin describing evolution. Ernst Mayr: Wrote several books on Evolutionary Biology. He studied birds in New Guinea.
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He came up with the Biological Species Concept: “A population or group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed with one another in nature to produce fertile offspring, but cannot successfully interbreed with members of other populations” Binomial Nomenclature: Shortened sentences to describe a specie—Genus, Specific Epithet I.E: Quercus Alba, Salix Alba Morph: Form Morphospecies: Homologous Structures: Human Arm, Cat leg, Whale Fin, Bat Wing—Structures with the same bone features. (They all have an ulna, carpal, metacarpal, and radius.) One reason for this is Convergent Evolution (Analagous) Biology 2 nd Lecture Binomen = genus name plus specific epithet Homologous Characters: Characteristics that are similar because they come from a common ancestor. Tiktaalik: “big freshwater fish” –375mya: Predicted to exist, and did exist. Analogous Characters: Similar because they are used in similar ways. Results from convergent evolution . Monophyletic taxon : members are grouped based on homologous characters. Polyphyletic taxon: grouping is based on analogous characters. Animal Diversity Kingdom Protista is polyphyletic. All other kingdoms are monophyletic. “Protozoa”: are heterotrophs that obtain food through ingestion. Fungi are heterotrophs that obtain food through absorption.
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Amoebas: Have Psuedopodia “ false feet” for locomotion and food capture. Have shells known as shells . Actinopods (aka Radiolarians): Test composed of silica compounds which is glass. They have axopods( ray feet) which they use food feeding and help them float. Foraminiferans “little hole bearers”: Calcium carbonate test, they extend pseudopodia from their little holes for feeding. Flagellates – “whip bearers”: Polyphyletic—9 by 3 cells. Cilliates (e.g. paramecium): 9 by 3 cells. Have contractile vaculoles that help get rid of excess water. Contain a micro and macronucleus. Macronucleus contains many copies of genes which aids in transcription. The micronucleus is the keeper of genes that will be passed on during reproduction. Go through a process of conjugation . Apicomplexans (sporozoans):
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Bio 102 Lecture Notes - Biology First Lecture Martin's...

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