Lecture 9 - Lecture 9 Applications & Processing of metals...

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Lecture 9 Applications & Processing of metals and alloys Chapter 11: Callister Dr. A. Keshavarz - ENGR 4250U
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Alloying Steel with More Elements T eutectoid changes: C eutectoid changes: Adapted from Fig. 9.34, Callister 7e . (Fig. 9.34 from Edgar C. Bain, Functions of the Alloying Elements in Steel , American Society for Metals, 1939, p. 127.) Adapted from Fig. 9.35, Callister 7e . (Fig. 9.35 from Edgar C. Bain, Functions of the Alloying Elements in Steel , American Society for Metals, 1939, p. 127.) T Eutectoid (°C) wt. % of alloying elements Ti Ni Mo Si W Cr Mn wt. % of alloying elements C eutectoid (wt%C) Ni Ti Cr Si Mn W Mo Dr. A. Keshavarz - ENGR 4250U
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C < 1 % C < 0.25 % 0.25 % < C < 0.60 % 0.60 % < C < 1.40 % 2.14 % < C < 4.50 % Dr. A. Keshavarz - ENGR 4250U
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Low Carbon Steels • Produced in greatest quantity • Unresponsive to heat treatments • Cold work hardened • Soft & weak; • Machineable and weldable; least expensive Dr. A. Keshavarz - ENGR 4250U
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Rockwell Hardness: C Scale Dr. A. Keshavarz - ENGR 4250U
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Table 11.1a a AISI, SAE, ASTM b also a maximum of 0.04 wt% P, 0.05 wt% S, 0.30 wt% Si Heat treat-able UNS = Unified Numbering System Dr. A. Keshavarz - ENGR 4250U
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Table 11.1b Dr. A. Keshavarz - ENGR 4250U
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Medium Carbon Steels • Heat treatments austenitizing, quenching tempering • Microstructure: tempered martensite • Plain m-c-steels have low hardenability; heat treatment in thin layer only (rapid) • Alloying improves h-t capability Dr. A. Keshavarz - ENGR 4250U
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Table 11.2a Medium Carbon Steels Dr. A. Keshavarz - ENGR 4250U
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Table 11.2b Dr. A. Keshavarz - ENGR 4250U
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High Carbon Steels • Almost always used in hardened & tempered condition • Wear resistant, hold sharp cutting edge • Alloyed with Cr, V, W & Mo to form carbide compounds Dr. A. Keshavarz - ENGR 4250U
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High Carbon Steels Tool Steel Table 11.3 Dr. A. Keshavarz - ENGR 4250U
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Stainless Steels • Highly resistant to corrosion • Martensitic, ferritic, austenitic (not h-t; c-w) Dr. A. Keshavarz - ENGR 4250U
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Table 11.4 Dr. A. Keshavarz - ENGR 4250U
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Cast Irons • C> 2.14 wt %; Usually 3.0 < C < 4.5 wt% • Other alloying elements • Melting point 1150ºC to 1300ºC • Graphite formation; Si > 1 wt% • Gray; nodular; white; malleable; and compacted graphite Dr. A. Keshavarz - ENGR 4250U
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Figure 11.2 Dr. A. Keshavarz - ENGR 4250U
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Production of Cast Iron Adapted from Fig.11.5, Callister 7e . Dr. A. Keshavarz - ENGR 4250U
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Gray Iron • Carbon content 2.5 < C < 4.0 wt% • Silicon content 1.0 < Si < 3.0 wt% • Corn flake like graphite structure • Fractured surface is gray • Weak and brittle in tension: sharp flake edges result in stress concentration • Good damping capacities • Wear resistant • High fluidity in molten state : casting • Low shrinkage and low cost Dr. A. Keshavarz - ENGR 4250U
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Dr. A. Keshavarz -
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This note was uploaded on 06/02/2011 for the course ECONMICS ECN204 taught by Professor Brenan during the Spring '08 term at Ryerson.

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Lecture 9 - Lecture 9 Applications & Processing of metals...

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