Lec-1 Introduction (13-03-07)

Lec-1 Introduction (13-03-07) - Introductory Lecture on...

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Introductory Lecture on Photonic Networks
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Motivation and Objectives The idea behind the all-optical networking is to maximize the transmission distance and deliver transparent and flexible connections. Keeping it all optical will result in cost reduction both in capital as well as in operations. It will lead to an ultimate realization of the Optical Internet. Limiting Optical-Electrical-Optical (OEO) conversions to mainly the ingress and egress points of the network, and thus reducing the amount of equipment that needs to be installed to add capacity to the network, should achieve the economic gains. A number of Ultra-Long- Haul (ULH) system vendors have promoted such a benefit but none to date have fulfilled the promise.
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Some History Optical Communication is not new! Alexander Graham Bell’s Photophone, 1880
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. The Network Life Cycle . *Source: From Bell to Broadband , Professor Keith Ward of University College London Telegraph Network Manual Telephone Network Switched Analog Telephone Network Digital Network 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Broadband Network VF Telex Messaging Magneto Audio Amplifiers Sleeve Control Switchboard Electrical Exchange Coax Systems VF Signaling PCM ISDN SONET/SDH Intelligent Network #7 Signaling ATM IP DWDM
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Transmission Media • Transmission Medium, or channel, is the actual physical path that data follows from the transmitter to the receiver. • Copper cable is the oldest, cheapest, and the most common form of transmission medium to date. • Optical Fiber is being used increasingly for high-speed applications. Fiber Replaces Copper
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Fiber Optics
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. Fiber Optic Transmission Bands . Near Infrared Frequency Wavelength 1.6 229 1.0 0.8 μm 0.6 0.4 1.8 1.4 UV (vacuum) 1.2 THz 193 461 0.2 353 Longhaul Telecom Regional Telecom Local Area Networks 850 nm 1550 nm 1310 nm CD Players 780 nm HeNe Lasers 633 nm C= νλ / n
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Why Optical ? • Growing demand for faster and more efficient communication systems • Internet traffic is tripling each year • It enables the provision of Ultra-high bandwidth to meet the growing demand • Increased transmission length • Improved performance •e t c .
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Demand for Bandwidth Bandwidth Demand 1990 2000 2010 Raw text = 0.0017 Mb Word document = 0.023 Mb Word document with picture = 0.12 Mb Radio-quality sound = 0.43 Mb Low-grade desktop video = 2.6 Mb CD-quality sound = 17 Mb Good compressed (MPEG1) video = 38 Mb Typical data bandwidth requirement 20,000 x
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Bandwidth is the range of frequencies employed to transmit (communicate) a signal (information) More bandwidth = more information. Typical Signals: Audible Sound-waves (20 to 20,000 cycles/s) AM radio uses 10kHz FM radio uses 100kHz TV uses 6MHz range Signals: sound = a variation in air pressure loudness = the amplitude of the variation pitch = the frequency of the variation wavelength = speed of propagation pitch Λ s : 1100ft/sec = 2.5 ft. 440Hz
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Lec-1 Introduction (13-03-07) - Introductory Lecture on...

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