Toxicology and Risk Assessment

Toxicology and Risk Assessment -...

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Toxicology and Risk Assessment Reading: Chapter 6 General review of some Toxicology General review of risk perception General review of risk assessment - components of risk assessment - simple calculations Environmental Engineers are involved in risk reduction and risk management ! 1 Who is Phillippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim?
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Toxicology of Hazardous Chemicals •  three exposure pathways                -  - •  absorption (transport across membrane tissues into body, e.g., skin, lungs . .) •  distribution (vascular system - blood stream, organs) •  biochemical transformation (bind to receptor molecule, metabolic reactions) •  storage and elimination (partitioning into fat, solubilization, kidneys) Toxicology  is the study of poisons and their effects on living organisms Toxicokinetics (aka pharmacokinetics)  studies the dynamics of chemical fate          in living organisms •  Human body is essentially a  bioreactor 2
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Physiological and Biological Mechanisms of Toxicity Phase I : Transform hydrophobic  chemicals to more polar products via  oxidation, hydrolysis, etc. ( cytochrome P- 450  enzymes) Phase II : add polar groups, such as  sulfate or glucose to make more  polar  3
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Target Organs, Carcinogenicity Liver -  hepatotoxicity Kidney -  nephrotoxicity Chromosomes -  genotoxicity Immune system -  immunotoxicity Cancer -  neoplastic growth (tumors) Carcinogens - chemicals that cause cancer 1 – initiation - genetic damage through mutation to DNA 2 - promotion - genetic damage expressed through multiplication of cells 3 - progression - spreading of cancer through uncontrolled growth 
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This note was uploaded on 06/03/2011 for the course 53 50 taught by Professor Parkin during the Spring '11 term at University of Iowa.

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Toxicology and Risk Assessment -...

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