ch04 - Chapter4 Nomenclature&Conformationsof...

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Created by Professor William Tam & Dr. Phillis Chang Click to edit Master subtitle  style 1Ch. 4 - 1 Chapter 4 Nomenclature & Conformations of Alkanes & Cycloalkanes
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About The Authors These Powerpoint Lecture Slides were created and prepared by Professor  William Tam and his wife Dr. Phillis Chang.   Professor William Tam received his B.Sc. at the University of Hong Kong in  1990 and his Ph.D. at the University of Toronto (Canada) in 1995.  He was an  NSERC postdoctoral fellow at the Imperial College (UK) and at Harvard University  (USA).  He joined the Department of Chemistry at the University of Guelph  (Ontario, Canada) in 1998 and is currently a Full Professor and Associate Chair in  the department.  Professor Tam has received several awards in research and  teaching, and according to  Essential Science Indicators , he is currently ranked as  the Top 1% most cited Chemists worldwide.  He has published four books and over  80 scientific papers in top international journals such as  J. Am. Chem. Soc., Angew.  Chem., Org. Lett.,  and  J. Org. Chem.   Dr. Phillis Chang received her B.Sc. at New York University (USA) in 1994, her  2Ch. 4 - 2
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3Ch. 4 - 3 1. Introduction to Alkanes & Cycloalkanes v Alkanes and cycloalkanes  are hydrocarbons in which all the carbon-carbon ( C–C bonds are single bonds v Hydrocarbons that contain C C : Alk enes Hydrocarbons that contain C C : Alk ynes
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4Ch. 4 - 4 v Alkanes:  CnH2n+2 e.g. hexane (C 6 H 14 ) 1 2 3 6 4 5 e.g. cyclohexane (C 6 H 12 ) v Cycloalkanes:  CnH2n
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5Ch. 4 - 5 1A. Sources of Alkanes:  Petroleum v Petroleum  is the primary source of alkanes.  It is a complex mixture of mostly  alkanes  and aromatic hydrocarbons with small amounts of  oxygen- nitrogen- and  sulfur- containing compounds
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6Ch. 4 - 6 Distillation  is the first step in refining petroleum.  Its components are  separated based on different  volatility More than 500 different compounds are contained in petroleum  distillates boiling below 200oC v Petroleum  refining
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7Ch. 4 - 7 The fractions taken contain a mixture of  alkanes  of  similar boiling points Mixture of  alkanes  can be used as  fuels solvents , and  lubricants v Petroleum  refining (Cont’d)
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8Ch. 4 - 8 The demand of  gasoline  is much greater than that supplied by the  gasoline fraction of  petroleum Converting hydrocarbons from other fractions of petroleum into gasoline  by “ catalytic cracking catalysts ~ 500 o C mixture of alkanes (C 12  and higher) highly branched hydrocarbons 5  - C 10 ) v Gasoline
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9Ch. 4 - 9 v Gasoline  (Cont’d) Isooctane  burns very smoothly (without knocking) in internal combustion 
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This note was uploaded on 06/03/2011 for the course CHEM 313 taught by Professor Hatton during the Spring '08 term at George Mason.

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ch04 - Chapter4 Nomenclature&Conformationsof...

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