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Unformatted text preview: Five Stages of Human Five Stages of Human Development
March 27,2009 Stage 1 02 Years Basic Trust vs. Stage 1 02 Years Basic Trust vs. Mistrust
• When parents or carers provide consistent care and respond consistently to an infant’s cries, the child learns that he can trust in his parents or carers and in his surroundings.
During this stage, the child develops confidence in his parents or carers and in himself.
The infant also learns, through his parents or carers actions, whether or not the world is safe.
When parents or carers fail to provide what the infant needs, and when they do not respond swiftly to their cries, the child will experience depression, paranoia, and can withdraw into himself. He will learn that he cannot trust anyone. Not responding to an infant when he cries will also teach him that the parents or carers are not dependable and that the world around him is unsafe and scary (Niolon, 2009).
The child explores by putting everything into his mouth (Harder, 2002). Stage 2 23 Years Autonomy Vs. Stage 2 23 Years Autonomy Vs. Doubt • During this stage, a child learns that he can be independent from his parents or carers.
• If parents or carers are firm but loving when they guide the children, and they praise them for trying to be independent, the child will develop a sense of autonomy.
• Being too permissive, harsh, or expecting too much out of the child will cause them to feel defeated and ashamed. They will have no self worth.
• The child will develop negative behaviors that will follow him into adulthood (Niolon, 2009).
• The child acquires skills such as language, walking, and the use of the toilet, as well as being able to feed himself. He can also dress and undress himself if the clothing is manageable (Harder, 2002) Stage 3 45 Years Initiative Vs. Guilt
Stage 3 45 Years Initiative Vs. Guilt
• During this stage, the child is curious about the world around him.
• The child models adults through playing games. Playing house and school are good examples.
• It is important for adults to reward the child’s efforts to show initiative. Doing so will enable the child to set goals and try to make efforts to reach them.
• If the child is punished for showing initiative, he will feel guilty. Such guilt will cause the child to become ruthless, not caring who they hurt to get what they want.
• The child will just do things his way (Niolon, 2009).
• The child learns to be imaginative.
• He is able to read and write on a simple level (Harder, 2002). Stage 4 612 Years Industry Vs. Stage 4 612 Years Industry Vs. inferiority • During this stage, the child learns to use his imagination.
• He learns that he can have relationships with people other than just his parents or carers.
• He learns that his parents or carers do not have as much control as they did in previous years.
• The child further learns how to achieve and become more independent.
• If adults support his efforts, he will become competent.
• If his efforts are never supported, he will become helpless and this results in an under achiever (Niolon 2009). Stage 5 1219 Years Identity Vs. Role Confusion • During this stage, the child tries to find himself and tries to figure out his place in the world.
• The child will go through differing identities until he finds himself.
• If he never finds himself, he will be unstable for life.
• If he does find himself, he will be able to remain stable and be loyal to others (Niolon 2009). Compare and Analyze Essay
Compare and Analyze Essay
• Eric Erickson, in an effort to explain and understand the development of children, divided childhood into five stages of development. Gaining an understanding of these stages of development not only enables professionals to better understand children as they work with them, it helps parents and carers to better understand their children, so they will know what is age appropriate. It is critical that parents and carers understand what References
References Harder, A. (2002). the Developmental Stages of Eric Erickson. Retrieved April 5, 2009, from Learning Place Online Web site: http://www.learningplaceonline.com/stages/organize/Eriks
Niolon, R. (2009). Erickon. Retrieved April 5, 2009, from Psych Page Web site: http://www.psychpage.com/learning/library/person/er
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This note was uploaded on 06/03/2011 for the course AED-222 aed-222 taught by Professor Kitchens during the Spring '10 term at University of Phoenix.
- Spring '10