Set3Answers - Practice Questions and Answers from Lesson...

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Practice Questions and Answers from Lesson I-4: Demand and Supply 1 Practice Questions and Answers from Lesson I-4: Demand and Supply The following questions practice these skills: Describe when demand or supply increases (shifts right) or decreases (shifts left). Identify a competitive equilibrium of demand and supply. Describe the equilibrium shifts when demand or supply increases or decreases. Describe how prices or gross substitutes or gross complements shift demand. Describe how input costs or production costs shift supply. Aggregate individual demand into market demand. Describe how effective price ceilings cause shortages. Compute some special demand curves and some special supply curves from verbal descriptions. Question: A survey indicated that chocolate is Americans’ favorite ice cream flavor. For each of the following, indicate the possible effects on demand, supply, or both as well as equilibrium price and quantity of chocolate ice cream. a. A severe drought in the Midwest causes dairy farmers to reduce the number of milk-producing cattle in their herds by a third. These dairy farmers supply cream that is used to manufacture chocolate ice cream. b. A new report by the American Medical Association reveals that chocolate does, in fact, have significant health benefits. c. The discovery of cheaper synthetic vanilla flavoring lowers the price of vanilla ice cream. d. New technology for mixing and freezing ice cream lowers manufacturers’ costs of producing chocolate ice cream. Answer to Question: a. By reducing their herds, dairy farmers reduce the supply of cream, a leftward shift of the supply curve for cream. As a result, the market price of cream rises, raising the cost of producing a unit of chocolate ice cream. This results in a leftward shift of the supply curve for chocolate ice cream as ice-cream producers reduce the quantity of chocolate ice cream supplied at any given price. Ultimately, this leads to a rise in the equilibrium price and a fall in the equilibrium quantity. b. Consumers will now demand more chocolate ice cream at any given price, represented by a rightward shift of the demand curve. As a result, both equilibrium price and quantity rise. c. The price of a substitute (vanilla ice cream) has fallen, leading consumers to substitute it for chocolate ice cream. The demand for chocolate ice cream decreases, represented by a leftward shift of the demand curve. Both equilibrium price and quantity fall. d. Because the cost of producing ice cream falls, manufacturers are willing to supply more units of chocolate ice cream at any given price. This is represented by a rightward shift of the supply curve and results in a fall in the equilibrium price and a rise in the equilibrium quantity. Question:
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Set3Answers - Practice Questions and Answers from Lesson...

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