Lecture 3 Atomic Theory

Lecture 3 Atomic Theory - Lec-3 Atomic Theory Roy A Lacey...

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Unformatted text preview: Lec-3: Atomic Theory Roy A. Lacey, Stony Brook University; Che 131, Spring 2011 1 Atomic Theory The electrons are situated at comparatively large distances (compared to nuclear dimensions) (compared to nuclear dimensions) around the nucleus The fundamental structural blocks of substances are the Elements Compounds Roy A. Lacey, Stony Brook University; Che 131, Spring 2011 2 atoms History of matter 13-15 Billion Billion Years ago Roy A. Lacey, Stony Brook University; Che 131, Spring 2011 3 Big Bang time line Time Temperature Size Composition 10-43 s 1 32 K Quarks, gluons, electrons, neutrinos 1ms 12 trillion K 1.4 light days Protons and neutrons 1s 10 billion K 4 ly Proton and neutron ratio fixed 100s – 5min 1-0.4 billion K ~55 ly Nuclei are formed 500000 yr 3000 K 1.5 million ly Atoms form, photons roam freely ν e + n → p + e − ν e + p → n + e + ⎧ ⎨ ⎪ ⎩ ⎪ ⎫ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ ⎪ n ↔ p Roy A. Lacey, Stony Brook University; Che 131, Spring 2011 4 e Nucleosynthesis 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 1 2 H + H H + e H + H H + ν γ + → + → 3 3 4 1 1 1 2 H + H H + 2 n → Heavier elements are synthesized from Roy A. Lacey, Stony Brook University; Che 131, Spring 2011 5 hydrogen in the interiors of stars Nucleosynthesis 4 4 8 ˆ ˆ † 4 4 8 2 2 4 H + H Be † ‡ ˆ ˆ 4 8 1 2 2 4 6 H + Be C + γ → Roy A. Lacey, Stony Brook University; Che 131, Spring 2011 6 Balance mass number and charge number Nucleosynthesis St D t i P d t N P d t Z P d t N Burning stages of a 25 solar mass star Stage Duration Product Name Product Z Product N Hydrogen burning 7 Million yr Helium 2 2 Helium burning 700,000 yr Carbon,Oxygen 6,8 6,8 Carbon burning 400 yr Oxygen, Neon 8,10 8,10 Neon burning 1 yr Oxygen, Magnesium, 8 12 14 8 12 14 Neon burning 1 yr Silicon 8,12,14 8,12,14 Oxygen burning 8 month Silicon, Sulfur 14,16 14,16 Silicon burning 1 day ~Iron, Nickel ~24-28 ~24-28 Roy A. Lacey, Stony Brook University; Che 131, Spring 2011 7 Nucleosynthesis A massive star near the end of its lifetime A massive star near the end of its lifetime Supernova 1987A by Hubble Space Hubble Space Telescope Jan 1997 Roy A. Lacey, Stony Brook University; Che 131, Spring 2011 8 Elements of the Solar system...
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This note was uploaded on 06/04/2011 for the course CHE 131 taught by Professor Kerber during the Spring '08 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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Lecture 3 Atomic Theory - Lec-3 Atomic Theory Roy A Lacey...

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