Lecture 7 - Perceiving Persons 03/07/11 (Part 2) 1...

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Unformatted text preview: Perceiving Persons 03/07/11 (Part 2) 1 Attributions s make sense of social world s our explanations = attributions – dispositional (personal) – situational 2 Attribution Theories s correspondent inference theory (Jones) – choice – expectedness – effects s covariation theory (Kelley) – consensus – distinctiveness – consistency 3 Attribution Biases s cognitive heuristics – information-processing rules-of-thumb – “availability” – event likelihood increased by ease of remembering s fundamental attribution error (FAE) – emphasize disposition over situation for others (but not for self) 4 Two-Step Attribution Model s s step 1: quick, easy, automatic step 2: time, energy, effort, conscious “cognitive misers” 5 FAE: A Western Bias? 6 Motivational Biases s influences how we make attributions – need for self-esteem – political ideology s “belief in a just world” – blame victims – particularly with situation similar to own 7 Impression Formation s impression formation: process of averaging information about a person s information integration theory – personal dispositions of perceiver – weighted average of target characteristics 8 Information Integration s perceiver characteristics s valence of traits, negativity bias s centrality of traits (warm v. cold) s order of traits, primacy effect 9 Confirmation Biases s interpret, seek, create info to verify beliefs s “belief perseverance” – maintain beliefs even after discredited – seek support, ignore disconfirmation s “self-fulfilling prophecy” – perceiver expectations affect target behavior 10 Improve Perception Accuracy s have more interactions/exposure to those you are judging s learn about judgment errors s keep an open mind 11 ...
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Lecture 7 - Perceiving Persons 03/07/11 (Part 2) 1...

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