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Unformatted text preview: Introduction to R R is a general-purpose computer language. It is similar to S language, and much code written for S run unalterd under R. Its particular strength is in statistical, graphical capabilities. You can also do simple simulation with R. R is free : its nothing to do with free as in beer. You get free dom to do whatever with R! So once you learn R, R will not disappear like a lot of other commercial products. Some users think of R as a statistics system, but it is more of an environement within which statistics can be implemented. Capability of R can be easily extended by packages . There are many user-contributed packages which convers a wide range of modern statistics . These extra packages can be downloaded from The Comprehensive R Archive Network (cran): http://cran.us.r-project.org/ . R runs on Linux, Mac, and Windows. Home page: http://www.r-project.org/ Goto http://www.faculty.uaf.edu/ffnt/teaching/popgen/R-tutorial/R-tutorial.html for the online version of this doc- ument. 1 Installation For Mac OS-X, go http://cran.us.r-project.org/bin/macosx/ , and click R-x.x.x.dmg (x.x.x is a version num- ber). Double click the downloaded disk image, and double click R.mpkg, and follow the instructions. For Windows, go http://cran.us.r-project.org/bin/windows/base/ , click Downlad R x.x.x for Windows, and follow the direction of installer. I dont know much about Windows, but it was pretty simple. Linux users probably know how to install R (e.g., yum install R in Fedora/CentOS). 1.1 Packages R is modular, and you can enhance the functionality of R by using Contributed packages in CRAN (http://cran.us.r- project.org/web/packages/). To install these extra packages, you can see the Section 6 of R Installation and Administration (http://cran.us.r-project.org/doc/manuals/R-admin.html). One way of installing packages are using install.packages() inside of R. &gt; install.packages(&quot;ape&quot;, dependencies = TRUE) This will automatically download and install the package ape. To use the package, &gt; library(&quot;nlme&quot;) Note that package nlme is included in the default installation, so you did not need to install it before you use it. 1 2 Basics: Importing data 2.1 From spread-sheet (e.g. OpenOffice.org and Excel) Easiest to transfer the data by converting the data into a simple text file. For example, spread-sheet can export the data to comma-delimited (CSV) or tab-delimited text files. tab-delimination is probably better because if some cells contains comma as a part of the data, column alignment may get screwed up with CSV. Steps in spread-sheet 1. Select the sheet which contains the data 2. Clean up the data If your data contains clumn header, make the first row to be the column header....
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- Spring '11