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Observations - UnitofAnalysis Observations 2.4.2011...

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2/4/2011 1 Observations 2.4.2011 Unit of Analysis What are you comparing across to test? Students who sit in the front make better grades than those who sit in the back of the classroom. As temperature rises, crime rises. A player is more likely to hit a shot if she has hit the previous shot. Teams in the SEC have better recruiting classes than teams in the ACC. Observation Verb and noun Noun single case of observation, single data point, n Value connected to observation Observations collections of cases Data: collection of cases and attached values. Ecological Fallacy Potential problem with cross level analysis Drawing a false conclusion about individuals, based on observing that relationship for groups to which the individuals belong groups to which the individuals belong. Example H 1 : African Americans are more likely to support female candidates than are Italian Americans. Can’t observe votes of individual people. i l f i Can compare precincts results for precincts with different proportions of Italian Americans and African Americans. Caveats We would never actually design a study like this. Too few observations of dependent variable and too few observations of independent variable to draw conclusions.
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2/4/2011 2 Raw Vote Percent Vote Ethnicity Number For Male For Female For Male For Female Precinct 1 African Americans 50 Italian Americans
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