Psych 103 Midterm 2 Notes

Psych 103 Midterm 2 Notes - 4/29 a diversity of animal...

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4/29 a diversity of animal species live in social groups Birds, mammals, insects the costs and benefits of social living are often for the same feature and selection Benefits : More bodies will allow faster detection of predators. Elephants have eachother’s back. Hide, attack, and notify eachother of dangers. More bodies will allow faster detection of food. Honey bee look for nectar, then come back and tell whole hive where food is. Repeated interactions increase the opportunity to help and reciprocate. (Scratch my back, I scratch yours) Favors individual that can be reciprocate. Reciprocal altruism (unrelated individuals) May be costly at the time, but if reciprocated, will benefit later Kin Altruism (related individuals) Maybe costly at the time, but increases inclusive fitness Genes are being preserved. Cuckoldry (benefit for low ranking males ) Able to snatch female from dominant male. More mating opportunities for unattended females Example: Baboons (Expected vs Observed number of matings according to dominance rank) Significantly less mating for dominant males than expected More mating for subordinate males than expected Sometimes the females are willing Due to friendship Sometimes the orangutans commit rape Costs : More bodies allows easier detection by predators Easier to pick off the stragglers More bodies increases competition for food More mouths to feed Lots of animals want to go to the watering hole. Repeated interactions increases the chance for social deception and manipulation They will trick each other and benefit themselves. Example: Capuchin Monkeys
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Subordinate animals fake warning calls to alarm the dominant animals & get food. The animals will stop listening to the subordinate if they catch the subordinate lying. This implies that they think about what others are thinking about ‘cause if the dominant males found out the subordinate males would be fucked. There should be a way to detect deceivers LEOPARD EXPERIMENT: Boy who cried wolf Play leopard alarm calls from individual A in the absence of the predator. 1 st time: strong response 2 nd time: less of a response 4 th time: no response The same response came from someone else. (individual B) Strong response again. Different response from the liar. (individual A) Before it was a response about snake, now it’s a response about eagles There is a strong response again. Example: Vervet Monkeys Individual go to subordinate and groom. Then when subordinate is relaxed, they attack the subordinate. This is observed in other non-human primate species.
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Psych 103 Midterm 2 Notes - 4/29 a diversity of animal...

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