Lecture 9 - Drugs

Lecture 9 - Drugs - Drugs: Drugs: Facts, Figures, &...

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Unformatted text preview: Drugs: Drugs: Facts, Figures, & Myths Facts Facts National Household Survey on Drug Abuse National (2007) (2007) In 2007, 19.9 mil Americans were current In illicit drug users (8 % of the pop. over 12) – 53% of these only used marijuana 22.3 mil (9%) were drug/alcohol dependent 3.7 mil (2.8%) – drugs but not alcohol 3.2 mil – both drugs and alcohol 15.5 mil (7.5%) – alcohol but not drugs 20.7% of people aged 18-25 were alcohol or 20.7% drug dependent Past Month Drug Use x Drug Type Past Month Drug Use x Drug Type and Year Cont. Cont. Percentage of people who reported using each of Percentage the following drugs in the past year who are classified as dependent on that drug. classified Heroin 50% (0.2 mil) 50% (0.2 Cocaine 24.9% (1.0 mil) Marijuana 16.5% (3.5 mil) Pain Relievers 11.8% (1.0 mil) Alcohol 9.3% (13.4 mil) Cont. Cont. Illicit drug use correlated with education level 4.3% of college graduates reported current use 7.6% of high school dropouts reported current 7.6% use use College students more likely to try drugs College (47.2% vs. 32%) (47.2% 20.6% of college students are current users vs 20.6% 21.7% of non-students of the same age 21.7% 17.1% of unemployed were current drug users 2007 National Household 2007 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse Use of illicit drug during lifetime? 46.1% In last year? 14.4% In last month? 8.0% Cont. Cont. Use of marijuana during lifetime? 40.6% In last year? 10.1% In last month? 5.8% 21.6% of high school seniors had smoked marijuana 21.6% over the last month over 7% of 12-17 yr olds had smoked marijuana over the 7% last month last Cont. Cont. Any drug but marijuana during lifetime? 29.7% In last year? 8.5% In last month? 3.7% http://oas.samhsa.gov/nsduh/2k7nsduh/2k7Results.cf http://oas.samhsa.gov/nsduh/2k7nsduh/2k7Results.cf m#Fig2­2 Lifetime cocaine? Heroin? 18 % 1.5% Last year? 2.9% 0.1% (366,000) Last month? 1.0% <0.1% (153,000) Between 1988-1995 Americans spent 57.3 Between billion dollars on illicit drugs. billion Drug Dependency Drug Dependency “. . . you’re never going to stop the human need you’re for release through altered consciousness. The government could take away all the drugs in the world and people would spin around on their lawn until they fell down and saw God.” their - Dennis Miller Models of Drug Abuse Models of Drug Abuse Disease – Addicts do not have control over Disease their drug use, therefore they are “sick.” their - Drug abuse is not normal - Some become addicted, others don’t Limits: 1. No mechanism has been found. 2. How can a disease make people take drugs? I. Cont. Cont. II. Physical Dependence – Addicts continue II. taking drugs to avoid unpleasant withdrawal effects (tobacco, alcohol, opiates, barbiturates) that occur due to physical dependence. that Limits: 1. Heroin and other drugs can cause addiction 1. without physical dependence. Physical Dependence cont. Physical Dependence cont. 2. Discontinuation of cocaine, marijuana, and 2. hallucinogens do not cause withdrawal. hallucinogens Cont. Cont. Positive Reinforcement – People take drugs Positive for their reinforcing effects and because they produce pleasure. they Limits: 1. Circular reasoning I. Cont. Cont. 1. 2. Pleasure derived from drug decreases over Pleasure time while drug-taking (craving) increases. time People will work for low doses of cocaine or People heroin that don’t produce subjective effects. heroin Cont. Cont. Incentive-Sensitization – Drugs create Incentive-Sensitization neural adaptations in brain regions responsible for reward and these regions become sensitive to drugs. These regions are responsible for wanting but not liking the drug. the Limits: 1. How do we differentiate bet. wanting and 1. liking in animals? I. ...
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