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Lecture 8 - Oper Cond

Lecture 8 - Oper Cond - Operant(Instrumental Conditioning...

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Unformatted text preview: Operant (Instrumental) Conditioning Conditioning Operant cond. Operant Presentation of a US depends on the Presentation subject’s behavior. A particular response (instrumental response) is required to obtain a specific stimulus or consequence. consequence. Terms Terms Primary reinforcer – innately reinforcing Primary stimulus (biological) stimulus Conditioned reinforcer – a stimulus that Conditioned gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer association Shaping – development of a new Shaping response through positive reinforcement of successive approximations of Terms cont. Terms Positive reinforcement – An instrumental Positive response increases in likelihood as a result of a stimulus being presented following the response and not presented in the absence of the response. in Terms cont. Terms Negative reinforcement – if the Negative instrumental response is performed, the aversive stimulus is terminated or prevented from occurring. prevented Punishment – Occurrence of the Punishment instrumental response results in delivery of an aversive stimulus. of Good Bad Give Positive Reinforcement Punishment Take Punishment Negative Reinforcement Reinforcement Schedules Reinforcement A. Continuous B. Partial – harder to extinguish than B. continuous continuous 1. Fixed–ratio 2. Variable-ratio (harder to extinguish 2. than fixed) than 3. Fixed-interval 3. 4. Variable-interval (harder to extinguish than fixed) than Learning by Observation Learning Observational learning – learning by Observational observing others observing Modeling – the process of observing and Modeling imitating a specific behavior imitating Examples Examples 1. Lion cubs learn to hunt by watching Lion their mother their 2. Bandura’s Bobo clown experiments 3. TV violence and child aggression - seven-fold increase in violent play seven-fold after watching “Power Rangers” after ...
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