Unformatted text preview: Operant (Instrumental)
Conditioning Operant cond.
Operant Presentation of a US depends on the
subject’s behavior. A particular response
(instrumental response) is required to
obtain a specific stimulus or
Terms Primary reinforcer – innately reinforcing
stimulus Conditioned reinforcer – a stimulus that
gains its reinforcing power through its
association with a primary reinforcer
association Shaping – development of a new
response through positive reinforcement
of successive approximations
of Terms cont.
Terms Positive reinforcement – An instrumental
response increases in likelihood as a
result of a stimulus being presented
following the response and not presented
in the absence of the response.
in Terms cont.
Terms Negative reinforcement – if the
instrumental response is performed, the
aversive stimulus is terminated or
prevented from occurring.
prevented Punishment – Occurrence of the
instrumental response results in delivery
of an aversive stimulus.
of Good Bad Give Positive
Reinforcement Punishment Take Punishment Negative
Reinforcement Reinforcement Schedules
B. Partial – harder to extinguish than
2. Variable-ratio (harder to extinguish
4. Variable-interval (harder to extinguish
than Learning by Observation
Learning Observational learning – learning by
observing Modeling – the process of observing and
imitating a specific behavior
1. Lion cubs learn to hunt by watching
2. Bandura’s Bobo clown experiments
3. TV violence and child aggression
- seven-fold increase in violent play
after watching “Power Rangers”
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- Spring '08
- instrumental response, aversive stimulus