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Lecture 2 - Research Methods

Lecture 2 - Research Methods - Research Methods Research...

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Unformatted text preview: Research Methods Research Methods in Psychology I. The Scientific Method I. The Scientific Method A. Theory – Explanation that organizes and A. predicts observations. B. Hypothesis – Specific, testable prediction. C. Operational Definitions – The procedures used in the research. used D. Replication – Repeating a study to see if D. the original findings generalize to other participants and situations. participants * Psychology is a science. Psychology II. Research Strategies II. Research Strategies A. Description 1. Case Study 2. Survey 3. Naturalistic Observation *Correlation – statistic used for descriptive *Correlation or pseudo-exp. studies or C. Experimentation Description ­ Case Study Description ­ Case Study One or a few individuals is studied in depth in One the hope of revealing universal principles. the Examples: study of serious brain injury (H.M.), Freud’s theory of personality, Piaget and child development development Limitations: Any given individual can be Limitations: atypical, therefore it becomes easy to make false conclusions. false - Description ­ Survey Description ­ Survey - Must use a representative, random sample. Examples: dating practices, political polls, drug Examples: surveys surveys Limitations: sampling errors, response rate. Limitations: The best basis for generalizing is not from the exceptional cases at the extremes, but from a representative sample of cases. representative Description ­Naturalistic Description ­Naturalistic Observation Observing and recording behavior in naturally Observing occurring situations without direct intervention with subjects. with Examples: Jane Goodall and chimps, child Examples: interactions at playgrounds, pace of life (Levine & Norenzayan, 1999) (Levine Limitations: does not explain behavior Limitations: does - Rank Country Rank Country Rank Country 1 Switzerland 11 France 21 Greece 2 Ireland 12 Poland 22 Kenya 3 Germany 13 Costa Rica 23 China 4 Japan 14 Taiwan 24 Bulgaria 5 Italy 15 Singapore 25 Romania 6 England 16 U. S. 26 Jordan 7 Sweden 17 Canada 27 Syria 8 Austria 18 S. Korea 28 El Salvador 9 Netherlands 19 Hungary 29 Brazil 10 Hong Kong 20 Czech Rep. 30 Indonesia 31 Mexico Adapted from Levine, R.V., & Norenzayan, A. (1999). The pace of life in 31 countries. Journal of Cross­Cultural Psychology, 30(2), 178­205. Correlation Correlation A statistical measure of the extent to which two statistical factors predict each other. factors Examples: intelligence and achievement? IQ and drug use? extraversion and risk-taking? drug Why do we use correlation? 1. When experimentation is unethical. 2. When experimentation is impossible or too When difficult. difficult. 3. When you’re looking at traits that can’t be When controlled. controlled. Limitation: Does correlation mean causation? - Experimentation Experimentation An investigator manipulates one or more An factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable). dependent Basic Terms: Experimental Condition – exposes participants Experimental to the exp. treatment. to - Control Condition – serves as a comparison Control for evaluating the effect of the treatment. for Random assignment Random Independent variable (IV) – the exp. factor that Independent is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied. being Dependent variable (DV) – the exp. factor that Dependent is being measured; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the IV’s. IV’s. Be careful of extraneous variables! 1.. 1 2. 3. 4. Effects of stress on diet? Effects of group size on willingness to speak up? Effects of nagging on completion of chores? Effects of sleep on cognitive skills? ...
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