Unformatted text preview: History/Perspectives History/Perspectives of Psychology Psychology – The science of behavior and
I. History Wilhelm Wundt – 1st psychology lab Leipzig, Germany (1879) – Study of conscious
exp. William James – Principles of Psychology
(1890) – Functionalist
(1890) Sigmund Freud – Interpretation of Dreams
(1900) – Role of the unconscious.
John B. Watson – Psy. should only study
observable behavior - Behaviorism (early
1900’s) B. F. Skinner – Behaviorist – We are
controlled by our environment (1950’s)
controlled Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow –
Humanism – Humans are unique, free, rational
beings with potential for personal growth
(1950’s) Hist cont.
Hist cont. Rise of applied psychology (WWII)
Modern perspectives: Evolutionary and
Positive Historical Firsts
Historical Firsts Margart Floy Washburn – 1st woman Ph.D. in
psy. (1894) – Mary Calkins
Gilbert Jones (1901) & Inez Prosser (1933) –
1st African American male & female Ph.Ds. in
psy. II. Historical Issues
II. Historical Issues
4. Functionalism vs. Structuralism
Stability vs. Change
Rationality vs. Irrationality
Nature vs. Nurture
John Locke – “tabula rasa”
Descartes – some ideas are innate
Darwin – innate traits allow organisms
to survive and reproduce
to III. Applied Psychology Fields
III. Applied Psychology Fields Clinical psychology – studies, assesses, and
treats people with psy disorders.
Psychiatry – A branch of medicine dealing
with psy. disorders.
Educational Psychology – how people learn.
Achievement tests, classroom environment,
education of mentally disabled.
education Counseling Psychology – deals with nondeviant behavior and relationships: family,
marriage, career counseling.
Industrial/Organizational Psychology –
Training and motivation of workers, job
satisfaction, and good work relations.
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