Orientalism.ppt - OUT OF PLACE In SAID\u2019s whole life 1 Orientalism EDWARD SAID 1977 ORIENTALISM AS DISCOURSE ORIENTALISM AS DISCIPLINE Main Themes of

Orientalism.ppt - OUT OF PLACE In SAIDu2019s whole life 1...

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Unformatted text preview: OUT OF PLACE In SAID’s whole life 1 Orientalism EDWARD SAID 1977 ORIENTALISM AS DISCOURSE ORIENTALISM AS DISCIPLINE * Main Themes of Orientalism Exotic east EAST IS EAST AND WEST IS WEST The Twins Shall Never Meet White man’s BURDEN/MISSION 2 Between the years 1979 through 1981 hundreds of articles have been written about Orientalism. In 2000, Eddie Yeghiayan, the Special Collections Librarian of University of California Irvine, compiled a list of reviews on Orientalism. 32% of the essays were From Political Science and Historical Journals. 32% were from Academic Journals. 25% from Newspaper articles. 10% from Literary Journals. 1% from other sources. 3 Orientalism was such a controversial essay that it was able to impact many different thought genres after the first couple years of its publication. Orientalism exercises power and has authority over the Orient Orientalism produces and manages the Orient 4 The Orient was almost a European invention, and had been since antiquity a place of romance, exotic beings, haunting memories and landscapes, remarkable experiences. the main thing for the European visitor was a European representation of the Orient and its contemporary fate 5 the Other the Orient has helped to define Europe (or the West) as its contrasting image, idea, personality, experience. Yet none of this Orient is merely imaginative. the vastly expanded American political and economic role in the Near East (the Middle East) makes great claims on our understanding of that Orient. 6 the methodological problems academic imaginative meanings historically and materially Foucault's notion of a discourse because of Orientalism the Orient was not (and is not) a free subject of thought or action. 7 Orientalism derives from … British and French cultural enter-pris … From the beginning of the nineteenth century until the end of World War II France and Britain dominated the Orient and Orientalism since World War II America has dominated the Orient it always demonstrates the comparatively greater strength of the Occident (British, French, or American) 8 a different methodological alternative the set of historical generalizations assumption the Orient is not an inert fact of nature 9 reasonable qualifications it would be wrong to conclude that the Orient was essentially an idea, or a creation with no corresponding reality. ideas, cultures, and histories cannot seriously be understood or studied without their force, or more precisely their configurations of power One ought never to assume that the structure of Orientalism is nothing more than a structure of lies or of myths 10 Orientalism, is not an airy European fantasy about the Orient, but a created body of theory and practice in which, there has been a considerable material investment. The relationship between Occident and Orient is a relationship of power, of domination, of varying degrees of a complex hegemony 11 hegemony Gramsci hegemony Prison Notebooks gives Orientalism the durability and the strength that culture hegemonic both in and outside Europe: the idea of European identity as a superior one in comparison with all the non-European peoples and cultures. 12 the imaginative examination of things Oriental was based more or less exclusively upon a sovereign Western consciousness out of whose unchallenged centrality an Oriental world emerged "The Lustful Turk" 13 three aspects of my contemporary reality 1. The distinction between pure and political knowledge. 2. The methodological question. 3. The personal dimension. 14 The Orient is not only adjacent to Europe; it is also the place of Europe’s greatest and richest and oldest colonies, the source of its civilizations and languages, its cultural contestant, and one of its deepest and most recurring images of the Other. 15 Orientalism, designed to challenge the bias imbedded in the Western consciousness The Orient was, for centuries, based upon an intellectual construct that reinforced conditions of inequality 16 The most readily accepted designation for Orientalism is an academic one, and indeed the label still serves in a number of academic institutions. 17 the corporate institution for dealing with the Orientdealing with it by making statements about it, authorizing views of it, describing it, by teaching it, settling it, ruling over it: in short, Orientalism as a Western style for dominating, restructuring, and having authority over the Orient. 18 above all a discourse Orientalism is not a mere political subject matter or field that is reflected passively by culture, scholarship, or institutions; nor is it a large and diffuse collection of texts about the Orient; nor is it representative and expressive of some nefarious "Western" imperialist plot to hold down the "Oriental" world. 19 Orientalism realizing-- political imperialism governs an entire field of study, imagination, and scholarly institutions a dynamic exchange between individual authors and the large political concerns shaped by the three great empires 20 principal methodological devices for studying authority 11 strategic location a way of describing the author's position in a text with regard to the Oriental material he writes about and strategic formation a way of analyzing the relationship between texts and the way in which groups of texts, types of texts, even textual genres, acquire mass, density, and referential power among themselves and thereafter in the culture at large. 21 Everyone who writes about the Orient must locate himself vis-å-vis the Orient Every writer on the Orient (and this is true even of Homer) assumes some Oriental precedent, some previous knowledge of the Orient, to which he refers and on which he relies. 22 my concern with authority does not entail analysis of what lies hidden in the Orientalist text, but analysis rather of the text's surface, its exteriority to what it de-scribes. Orientalism is premised upon exteriority 23 Thus there was ( and is) a linguistic Orient, a Freudian Orient, a Spenglerian Orient, a Darwinian Orient, a racist Orient —and so on. 24 The unity of the large ensemble of texts I analyze is due in part to the fact that they frequently refer to each other: Orientalism is after all a system for citing works and authors. 25 several audiences in mind for students of literature and criticism for contemporary students of the Orient, from university scholars to policymakers for readers in the so-called Third World My hope is to illustrate the formidable structure of cultural domination and, specifically for formerly colonized peoples, the dangers and temptations of employing this structure upon themselves or upon others. 14 26 The personal dimension Much of the personal investment in this study derives from my awareness of being an "Oriental" as a child growing up in two British colonies. In many ways my study of Orientalism has been an attempt to inventory the traces upon me, the Oriental subject, of the culture whose domination has been so powerful a factor in the life of all Orientals. This is why for me the Islamic Orient has had to be the center of attention. 27 ...
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