Chemistry lecture 2009 presentation

Chemistry lecture 2009 presentation - The Chemistry of Life...

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The Chemistry of Life Topic 2 Lecture outline Atoms & molecules Chemical bonding Inorganic compounds & solutions Organic chemistry Energy transfer using ATP
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Matter - stuff Anything that occupies space and has mass (weight) Solid, liquid, gas Is composed of elements unique substances that cannot be broken into simpler substances by regular chemical methods Periodic table: atomic symbols - C, O, Ca
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Atoms - “indivisible” Nucleus – 99% of atom’s mass Positively charged overall Protons – bear a single positive electrical charge p+ Neutrons – are neutral n0 1 amu – one atomic mass unit Electrons Bear a single negative charge equal to positive charge Do not affect the type of element 0 amu Smallest part of an element that still has the properties of that substance… gives the element its unique physical and chemical properties
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Atomic structure Atoms are electrically neutral N of protons = N of electrons Hydrogen: 1 e and 1 p Iron: 26 e and 26 p Atomic number: # protons Atomic mass: # protons + neutrons Bohr Planetary Model of an Atom
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Isotopes All elements have varieties called ISOTOPES. differ in number of neutrons elements are mixtures of isotopes different atomic weight Ex: Hydrogen 1 H – (1 neutron) 2 H – deuterium (2 neutrons) 3 H – tritium (3 neutrons) Atomic weight:
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Planetary Models of Elements p + represents protons, n o represents neutrons Orbital Model of Elements Regions around the nucleus in which an electron/ pair of electrons is likely to be found most of the time electron cloud – haze of electronic density
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The lowest (first) energy level is closest to the nucleus, the higher energy levels are farther from the nucleus (1-7) Electrons may be present in regions called energy levels Valence shells Energy levels fill from the inside out
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Electrons can be transferred from one atom to another to increase the stability of valence shell - Ionization Charged particles with unequal numbers of protons and electrons = Ions with positive charge = Ions with negative charge =
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Electrolytes and Free radicals Electrolytes Form solutions to conduct electricity (muscles, heart, brain) Functions Free radicals = chemical particles with odd number of electrons (O 2 ) that destroy molecules (DNA)
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Atoms want to be "happy" - have a full outer energy level.
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