Topic 3 Cytology presentation complete

Topic 3 Cytology presentation complete - Cell Structure and...

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Cell Structure and Function Concepts of cellular structure Cell surface – plasma membrane Intercellular junctions Membrane transport Cytoplasm Cell division Protein synthesis
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± Smallest unit of life ± Can survive on its own or has potential to do so ± Is highly organized for metabolism ± Senses and responds to environment ± Has potential to reproduce ± Have a) plasma membrane b) cytoplasm=cytosol+organelles Cell
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± Main component of cell membranes ± Gives the membrane its fluid properties ± Two layers of phospholipids ± Cholesterol and glycolipids ± Selectively permeable Lipid Bilayer one layer of lipids one layer of lipids
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Membrane Proteins Peripheral protein Protein channel Protein carrier Receptor protein extracellular fluid cytosol lipid bilayer
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Protein Channel ± Integral proteins that form pores for Can be ± Constantly open ± Gated-channels – Ligand and voltage gated Protein Carrier ± Integral proteins that bind to glucose, electrolytes etc. and transfer them across membrane ± Pumps - carriers that consume ATP
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Microvilli ± extensions of cell membrane ± increase surface area for absorption – called brush border if very dense – found in intestinal and kidney cells
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Why Are Cells So Small? ± Surface-to-volume ratio ± The bigger a cell is, the less surface area there is per unit volume ± Above a certain size, material cannot be moved in or out of cell fast enough
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Cell-to-Cell Junctions
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Description of mechanism by which movement occurs Direction of particle movement: down/against the concentration gradient Energy requirements Examples in the human body with type of materials moved Passive processes Simple diffusion Osmosis Isotonic: Hypertonic: Hypotonic: Facilitated diffusion Filtration Active processes Active transport Vesicular transport 1. Exocytosis 2. Endocytosis a. phagocytosis b. pinocytosis
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Organelles ± Nucleus ± Endoplasmic reticulum ± Golgi complex ± Mitochondrion ± Lysosomes ± Peroxisomes ± Ribosomes ± Centrioles ± Cytoskeleton
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± Keeps the DNA molecules of cells separated from metabolic machinery of cytoplasm ± Makes it easier to organize DNA and to copy it before parent cells divide into daughter cells Functions of Nucleus
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Components of Nucleus nuclear envelope nucleoplasm nucleolus chromatin
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This note was uploaded on 06/05/2011 for the course KINS 2531 taught by Professor Sturges during the Spring '11 term at Georgia Southern University .

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Topic 3 Cytology presentation complete - Cell Structure and...

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