Topic 13 sensory system PRESENTATION 2009

Topic 13 sensory system PRESENTATION 2009 - The sensory...

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The sensory organs Topic 14 Sensory receptors and their roles Anatomy of the eye Roles of specific tissues of the eye in vision Olfactory receptors and their role in smell Gustatory receptors and their role in taste Anatomy of the ear Roles of specific tissues of the ear in hearing and equillibrium Roles of accessory structures
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Receptors Receptors are specialized structures detecting stimuli Receptors convert the energy of the stimulus into a nerve signal through sensory transduction Classification of receptors 1. By distribution in the body 2. By origin of stimuli 3. By stimulus modality 4. By structure
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Receptors by distribution General (somesthetic) senses Skin, muscles, tendons, joint capsule, viscera Touch, pressure, stretch, heat, cold, pain, blood pressure and composition Special senses Limited to the head, innervated by cranial nerves Taste, smell, vision, hearing, equilibrium
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Exteroceptors Respond to stimuli outside the body Near or at the body surface Touch, pressure, pain, temperature, vision, hearing, taste, smell Viscero/Interoceptors Respond to stimuli within the body Viscera and blood vessels Produce feelings of visceral pain, nausea, stretch Proprioceptors Sense position/movements of body & its parts Restricted location: skeletal muscles, joints, tendons & ligaments Muscle spindles, Golgi tendon organs Receptors by origin of stimuli
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by stimulus modality Receptors Temperature Mechano receptors Vibration Stretch Chemo receptors Photo receptor Light Chemicals: smell, taste, blood composition Thermo receptors Pressure Nociceptors Pain Touch Chemical Trauma Ischemia Baroreceptors
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Receptors by structure Simple Simple in structure and physiology General senses Complex = sense organs Complex in structure and physiology : nerve endings combined with connective, epithelial, muscular tissue Special senses
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The General Senses Unencapsulated Nerve Endings Sensory dendrites NOT wrapped in connective tissue Merkel Encapsulated Nerve Endings Sensory dendrites wrapped by glial cells or connective tissue Meissner
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Encapsulated Nerve Endings: Proprioceptors Muscle spindles are modified skeletal muscle cells: 3-10 intrafusal fibers in connective tissue capsule Golgi tendon organs in tendons sense tension on tendons Mechanoreceptors
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How does the signal reach the brain? Signals reach the brain through projection pathways (highways) to ultimate destination in the CNS Spinal nerves carry sensory signals below the head Carried by tracts within the SC 31 pairs of mixed nerves Cranial nerves carry sensory signals from the head 12 pairs of nerves Some are sensory, some are motor, some are mixed
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SPECIAL SENSES
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Taste - gustation is the sensation of taste resulting from the action of chemicals on thousands of taste buds A taste bud consists of __________cells _______________________________ taste cells have apical ________________________ taste cells synapse with sensory nerve fibers at their base To be tasted, molecules must dissolve in __________, diffuse into the taste pore and contact ________________ Chemoreceptors
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Physiology of Taste
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