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Reli. Notes 18

Reli. Notes 18 - o Soul Word humans use to cover up...

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Early Philosophers Joseph Butler: o The Analogy of Religion o No reason, based on science, to reject immortality of the soul o Death affects the body, but the body is not part of the “self” Think of body as equipment which soul uses, similar to eyeglasses David Hume: o Empiricist: Sensory data, only, is reliable Philosophy should never go beyond experience o Only memory gives any continuity of idea of self o At instant body dies we will lose all senses, and thus lose any sense of self o No rational basis for belief in a soul o Proportional punishment: Why, then, eternal damnation? o If everything else in nature is mortal, why wouldn’t soul be? o Religious faith is only acceptable basis for belief in soul Voltaire: o Critic of corrupt relations between Church and politics in France o Skepticism: No rational claims for ancient philosophers, religion o Deist: Any religious knowledge should be based on observation/ rationality alone o Still believed in a creator, but hated religious rifts/ hatred of others
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Unformatted text preview: o Soul: Word humans use to cover up ignorance o Our senses give us all our information, that’s it o Consciousness, memory give identity Can’t comprehend consciousness after death o Mocks idea of Resurrection: Fetus problem Identity problem o Difference between Voltaire and Hume: As deist, Voltaire believes in God • Baron d’Holbach: o One of first public atheists o Materialist viewpoint on human identity: Humans are simply organic machines o Ignorance and fear lead to belief in God o Attacks religion as tool for political tyranny Supporter of science o How could immaterial soul interact w/ material body? We know nothing about the soul o Familiarity w/ body leads to contempt for body o Talk of souls is just wish fulfillment o Death is same as existence before birth (Lucretius) • Dissent form philosophers: o Door opened for questioning of Church during Reformation o Rise of capitalism, science...
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Reli. Notes 18 - o Soul Word humans use to cover up...

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