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ETSslides - Electron Transport and Oxidative...

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Electron Transport and Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation Oxidative Phosphorylation - - Introduction Introduction most energy from fuel is obtained through these oxidative processes fuel + O 2 energy oxidation -transfer of electrons to acceptor - aerobic acceptor = oxygen
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-- Efficient Efficient -- very efficient process- recall living cells efficiency is ~ 42%, compared to about 3% efficiency when burning oil or gasoline HOW? -- Separating carbohydrates, lipids, etc. from oxygen to optimize recover of energy -- STEPWISE -- NADH and FADH 2 made available during respiration for oxidation to generate ATP ********************************************
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Questions Questions How is the energy to synthesize ATP obtained in respiration? How is the energy yield maximized?
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Mitochondrion Mitochondrion -- A. football shaped (1-2 μ ), 1-1000s in each cell B. electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation Cytosol
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C. Outer membrane - permeable to small molecules D. Inner membrane - electron transport enzymes embedded; also ATP synthase Cristae increase area Impermeable to small molecules Integrity required for coupling ETS to ATP synthesis Cytosol
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E. Matrix TCA enzymes, other enzymes; also ATP, ADP, NAD, NADH, Mg 2+ , etc.
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Definitions: Oxidation Definitions: Oxidation - - Reduction Reduction = transfer of electrons from electron donor to electron acceptor Example: A:H + B = A + B:H donor acceptor electron donor (reducing agent, reductant) is itself oxidized electron acceptor (oxidizing agent, oxidant) is itself reduced
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-- both oxidation and reduction must occur simultaneously --one compound donates electrons to (reduces) a second compound; the second accepts electrons from (oxidizes) the first. Redox /oxidation-reduction -- electrons always move from compounds with lower reduction potential to compounds with higher reduction potential ( more positive).
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Biological Biological redox redox = Two half-reactions A:H A Reductant ' oxidant + e - B B:H Oxidant + e - ' reductant (acceptor) (donor) Standard reduction potential, E ° -- measure of the tendency of oxidant to gain electrons, to become reduced, a potential energy.
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*********************************************************** So, the more negative the reduction potential is, the easier a reductant can reduce an oxidant and The more positive the reductive potential is, the easier an oxidant can oxidize a reductant The difference in reduction potential must be important ************************************************************
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Reduction Potential Difference = Reduction Potential Difference = E E º º = E ° (acceptor) - E ° (donor) measured in volts. The more positive the reduction potential difference is, the easier the redox reaction Work can be derived from the transfer of electrons and the ETS can be used to synthesize ATP.
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The reduction potential can be related to free energy change by: = -n F where n = # electrons transferred = 1,2,3 F = 96.5 kJ/volt, called the Faraday constant
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******************************************************************** Table of Standard Reduction Potentials --- Oxidant + e - ' reductant -- e.g., M&vH, 3rd ed., p. 527 Note: oxidants can oxidize every compound with less positive voltage -- (above it in Table) reductants can reduce every compound with a less negative voltage -- (below it in Table) **********************************************************************
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