rpp2010-rev-particle-detectors-non-accel

rpp2010-rev-particle-detectors-non-accel - 29. Detectors...

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29. Detectors for non-accelerator physics 1 Written 2009 (see the various sections for authors). 29. PARTICLE DETECTORS FOR NON-ACCEL. PHYSICS . . . . . . . . . 1 2 9 . 1 .I n t r o d u c t i o n ........................... 1 29.2. High-energy cosmic-ray hadron and gamma-ray detectors . . . . . . . . 2 2 9 . 2 . 1 .A tm o s p h e r i cfl u o r e s c e n c ed e t e c t o r s ............... 2 29.2.2. Atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes for high-energy γ - r a ya s t r o n om y.......................... 4 2 9 . 3 .L a r g en e u t r i n od e t e c t o r s...................... 6 2 9 . 3 . 1 .D e e p l i q u i dd e t e c t o r s f o r r a r ep r o c e s s e s .............. 6 29.3.1.1. Liquid scintillator detectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2 9 . 3 . 1 . 2 .W a t e rC h e r e n k o vd e t e c t o r s................. 9 2 9 . 3 . 2 .N e u t r i n o t e l e s c o p e s ...................... 1 1 29.4. Large time-projection chambers for rare event detection . . . . . . . . 16 29.5. Sub-Kelvin detectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 2 9 . 5 . 1 .T h e rm a lP h o n o n s....................... 2 1 29.5.2. Athermal Phonons and Superconducting Quasiparticles . . . . . . 24 29.5.3. Ionization and Scintillation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 2 9 . 6 o w - r a d i o a c t i v i t yb a c k g r o u n dt e c h n i q u e s............... 2 6 2 9 . 6 . 1 e ± n i n gt h r o b l em ...................... 2 6 2 9 . 6 . 2 .E n v i r o nm e n t a lr a d i o a c t i v i t y .................. 2 7 29.6.3. Radioimpurities in detector or shielding components . . . . . . . . 28 2 9 . 6 . 4 .R a d o na n d i t sp r o g e n y..................... 2 9 2 9 . 6 . 5 .C o sm i c r a y s ......................... 3 0 2 9 . 6 . 6 e u t r o n s........................... 3 0 29. PARTICLE DETECTORS FOR NON-ACCELERATOR PHYSICS 29.1. Introduction Non-accelerator experiments have become increasingly important in particle physics. These include classical cosmic ray experiments, neutrino oscillation measurements, and searches for double-beta decay, dark matter candidates, and magnetic monopoles. The experimental methods are sometimes those familiar at accelerators (plastic scintillators, drift chambers, TRD’s, etc. ) but there is also instrumentation either not found at accelerators or applied in a radically di²erent way. Examples are atmospheric scintillation K. Nakamura et al. ,JPG 37 , 075021 (2010) (http://pdg.lbl.gov) August 5, 2010 11:34
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2 29. Detectors for non-accelerator physics detectors (Fly’s Eye), massive Cherenkov detectors (Super-Kamiokande, IceCube), ultracold solid state detectors (CDMS). And, except for the cosmic ray detectors, there is a demand for radiologically ultra-pure materials. In this section, some more important detectors special to terrestrial non-accelerator experiments are discussed. Techniques used in both accelerator and non-accelerator experiments are described in Sec. 28, Particle Detectors at Accelerators, some of which have been modi±ed to accommodate the non-accelerator nuances. Space-based detectors also use some unique methods, but these are beyond the present scope of RPP . 29.2. High-energy cosmic-ray hadron and gamma-ray detectors 29.2.1. Atmospheric Fuorescence detectors : Written September 2009 by L.R. Wiencke (Colorado School of Mines). Cosmic-ray fluorescence detectors (FD) use the atmosphere as a giant calorimeter to measure isotropic scintillation light that traces the development pro±les of extensive air showers (EAS). The EASs observed are produced by the interactions of high-energy (E > 10 17 eV) subatomic particles in the stratosphere and upper troposphere. The amount
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rpp2010-rev-particle-detectors-non-accel - 29. Detectors...

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