Bio 1 paper

Bio 1 paper - Biology 1- Section 1 July 26, 2010 Sickle...

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Biology 1- Section 1 July 26, 2010 Sickle Cell Disease If you’re a black individual living in the United States, I am sure you have heard of an epidemic called Sickle Cell and not only have you heard of it, chances are you know someone living with it. Sickle Cell disease is the most common inherited blood disease in the United States. 1 According to the National Institutes of Health, Sickle Cell affects approximately 72,000 Americans, 1 in 500 individuals of African descent and approximately one in ten Africans carry the trait. 1 Putting things into perspective, about 8 percent of Africans carry the trait. This inherited disease originated in Africa and although symptoms were prevalent in the African community, they virtually went unnoticed due to the similarities in symptoms to other tropical diseases. After multiple deaths due to this condition, the Sickle Cell disease was officially named by Chicago Cardiologist James B. Herrick n 1910. His reports, aided by his intern Ernest Irons, showed an individual with “peculiar elongated and sickle- shaped” cells. 2 Even though Herrick and his colleagues were the first to observe and name the disease, Linus Pauling and his colleagues were the first to link this disease genetically. In 1949, Physical Chemist Pauling published a paper named “Sickle-Cell Anaemia, A Molecular Disease” and in this paper he discussed that Sickle Cell is an inherited blood disorder that is autosomal recessive. 3 Being
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that the condition is autosomal recessive, the modes of inheritance now become a 1:2:1 ratio. This ratio signifies that there is a 25 percent chance of the child inheriting the disease, 50 percent chance of the child having the Sickle Cell trait, and 25 percent chance that the disease will not affect the child at all. Additionally, they concluded that this disorder was a result in an abnormality in the hemoglobin molecule, a molecule responsible in the blood for transporting oxygen from the lungs or gills to the rest of the body, where it releases oxygen for cell use. 4
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Bio 1 paper - Biology 1- Section 1 July 26, 2010 Sickle...

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