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Unformatted text preview: v i v j /( v i + v j ). * Note: the reason for increasing the branch length below node k is that step 3 estimates the character state of node k with error equivalent to an additional amount of evolution after node k . 5. Repeat steps 14 until only one tip left on the tree. There will be n1 contrasts for an n taxon tree. 6. Divide each contrast by the squareroot of the variance (std. dev) to standardize the variance. This standardization is the means by which the contrasts are "moved" to the origin in the previous example (F&H fig. 9.13)....
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 Fall '08
 BAER
 Evolution

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