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handout 1.11.11 - 1 Independent assortment Factors(alleles...

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1 1/11/11 1. Independent assortment: Factors (alleles) for different traits (unlinked genes) are shuffled into gametes independently (randomly, by chance) of each other 2. Recombination: Generation of new genotypes in the offspring relative to their parents. NOTE: Many textbooks (including ours) limit the term to new gene combinations via crossover (XO); however, technically, segregation/fertilization and independent assortment are also major sources of recombination as covered in lecture 3. Pedigree: Family tree or genealogy, often used as basis to study the transmission genetics of a specific trait 4. Rare condition: Mutation for a specific feature arises only once within the pedigree 5. Proband: Affected individual who draws attention of geneticist/physician to family 6. Probability: Relative frequency of an event or outcome 7. Developmental noise: Phenotypic variation due to random developmental fluctuations in cell number, cell movement, and the like --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- HUMAN PEDIGREES 1. Generations numbered with Roman numerals from oldest (top) to youngest (bottom) 2.
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