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handout 1.13.11 - 1 Developmental noise Phenotypic...

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1/13/11 1. Developmental noise: Phenotypic variation due to random developmental fluctuations in cell number, cell movement, and the like 2. Multiple alleles: Refers to a gene represented by 3 or more alleles within the population 3. Epistasis: Nonreciprocal interaction, whereby one gene influences the expression of another gene. More quantitatively, refers to the non-additive (non-independent) interactions of two or more genes. 4. Suppressor: Mutant allele of a second gene inhibits the expression of the mutant allele of the first gene, thereby restoring the normal condition for the first gene 5. Rate limiting step (RLS): The slowest step in a biochemical pathway, and thereby, the one that determines the overall rate of the entire pathway. 6. Complementation test: If a cross between two recessive types reconstitutes the dominant condition, then this trait is determined by multiple genes. Otherwise, this trait is determined by a single gene with multiple alleles (i.e., allelism) 7. One gene-one enzyme hypothesis: Nobel Prize-winning work of Beadle and Tatum, which established the function of genes (i.e., a gene codes for a protein, or more technically correct, a gene codes for a polypeptide); pages 392-394 in textbook 8. Reciprocal cross: A cross that starts with the same parental phenotypes as in a previous one, but where the starting phenotypes of the parents have been reversed. 9. Prion: A pathogenic, proteinaceous agent that is often passed by direct infectious contact, in addition to normal Mendelian inheritance; the cause of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, “Mad cow disease”) in cattle, and kuru and Creutzfeld -Jakob disease (CJD) in humans --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- MENDELIAN INHERITANCE 1. 2 alleles, 1 gene (vs. multiple alleles) 2. Complete dominance (vs. incomplete dominance, codominance, and overdominance)
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