handout 2.3.11 - 1 2/3/11 1. Inverted repeats: Base...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 2/3/11 1. Inverted repeats: Base sequence followed by its reverse complement downstream (3) on the same strand. Such repeats can form stem/loop structures 2. Phosphorylation: Addition of a phosphate group to a molecule (e.g., to serine, threonine, or tyrosine residues of a protein), which can thereby alter the molecules activity and function 3. Chaperone: Proteins (e.g., heat shock proteins, HSP) that assist in the folding of other proteins into their correct, functional, higher-level structures 4. Carbonic anhydrase (CA): Enzyme for the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) 5. Chromatin: Chromosomal material at interphase 6. Histones: Small basic proteins, which are critical to chromatin/chromosomal structure. There are five types, with H1 being most important --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- NUCLEIC ACID STRUCTURE 1. Phosphodiester bonds link adjacent nucleotides 2. Polarity: Each nucleotide chain has a free 5 P (phosphate) end and free 3 OH (hydroxyl) end; these ends are structurally and functionally different 3. Bases project outward from sugar-phosphate backbone 4. Antiparallel: The opposing interaction of one nucleic acid sequence with another, whereby the 5 end of one strand complements with the 3 end of the other. 5. Primary (1 ) structure: Base sequence of a nucleic acid Secondary (2 ) structure: Localized regions of bending and folding of polynucleotide chain, resulting in stems and loops Higher level structure: Three-dimensional structure of the nucleic acid, including inter-strand base pairing (i.e., double helix) and supercoiling (see below) 6. Denaturation: Loss of secondary or higher level structure due to excessive temperature, chemicals, or pH Renaturation: Reconstitution of secondary or higher level structure following the removal of the excessive temperature, chemicals, or pH *ds = abbreviation for double stranded ss = abbreviation for single stranded ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------...
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This note was uploaded on 06/08/2011 for the course PCB 3063 taught by Professor Marta during the Spring '08 term at University of Florida.

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handout 2.3.11 - 1 2/3/11 1. Inverted repeats: Base...

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