handout 2.10.11 - 2/10/11 1. C0t Log of the initial...

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1 2/10/11 1. C 0 t – Log of the initial concentration of single-stranded (ss) DNA multiplied by time for its renaturation 2. Snapback (or foldback) DNA – Single-stranded DNA, which contains a pair of adjacent inverted repeats. As such, this ssDNA can quickly form a stem with itself during DNA renaturation 3. Colony – Visible clonal descendants of a single progenitor bacterial cell 4. Plasmid – Small, double-stranded (ds) ring of DNA, which is nonessential to the cell and which can replicate independently in the host cytoplasm 5. Episome – Genetic element that can exist either independently in the host cytoplasm or dependently as an insert of the host chromosome 6. Viruses – Non-cellular parasites that use living animal, plant, or bacterial cells to obtain the resources and machinery to reproduce 7. Bacteriophage (or phage) – Viruses that infect living bacterial cells for their reproduction 8. Reverse transcriptase (RT) – Specialized DNA polymerase (POL) that synthesizes dsDNA from ssRNA 9. Homologous recombination – Standard mechanism of crossover, which is mediated through the sequence similarity between the DNAs. As such, limited to shared regions between the DNAs 10. Nonhomologous recombination – Less standard mechanism of crossover, which is not dependent on shared sequence similarities between the DNAs. As such, can occur at many more sites between the DNAs --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- EUKARYOTIC CHROMOSOMES One DNA molecule per chromosome (or replicated sister chromatid) Minimally needed per chromosome Centromere – For spindle attachment and to hold sister chromatids together during mitosis and meiosis At least one replication origin (versus many for the huge DNA molecules of eukaryotes) Telomeres – Specialized ends of linear chromosomes, which are composed of repetitive DNA. Their function is: (1) to protect the ends of linear chromosomes from interacting with each; (2) to protect these
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handout 2.10.11 - 2/10/11 1. C0t Log of the initial...

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