handout 2.22.11 - 2/22/11 1. Genome: Total haploid DNA...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
1 2/22/11 1. Genome: Total haploid DNA complement of a cell, individual, or species Proteome: Total set of proteins that can be produced by a cell, individual, or species 2. Wobble hypothesis: Base pairing of codons and anticodons occurs by both standard (canonical) and non- standard (non-canonical) rules at third (3rd) codon positions. Thus, fewer tRNAs are necessary for the complete set of sense (amino acid) codons 3. Aminoacyl tRNA synthetases: Enzymes that charge (add) each amino acid onto their correct tRNA(s). There are 20 aminoacyl tRNA synthetases, one for each amino acid 4. Charged or acylated tRNA: tRNA with its added amino acid Uncharged or deacylated tRNA: tRNA without its amino acid 5. Phosphorylation: Here, refers to addition of phosphate group to serine (S), threonine (T), or tyrosine (Y) residues of a protein to thereby alter its activity/function. The addition of phosphates is catalyzed by kinases, whereas the removal of phosphates is catalyzed by phosphatases --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- BUILDING COMPLEX PROTEINS A. Polypeptide shuffling – Combine the same and/or different polypeptides into one large complex protein with quaternary (4 ) structure B. Domain/exon shuffling – As a single protein domain is often encoded by one exon or a few sequential exons, different exons can be combined via unequal crossover at introns to generate larger genes and thereby larger, more complex proteins with multiple domains INCREASING PROTEIN DIVERSITY C. Alternative splicing – Differential retention of exons by an mRNA allows for the translation of several different proteins for its gene (e.g., CT = calcitonin, CGRP = calcitonin-gene-related peptide) D. RNA editing – Post-transcriptional modification of RNA sequence by insertion/deletion editing (addition or
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 2

handout 2.22.11 - 2/22/11 1. Genome: Total haploid DNA...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 2. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online