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handout 3.17.11 - 1 Insulator Special DNA sequence(cis...

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1 3/17/11 1. Insulator Special DNA sequence (cis element) to which proteins can bind, and thereby, block the spread of chromatin remodeling from one DNA region to the next 2. Phosphorylation Addition of phosphate groups (PO 4 ) to tyrosine (Y) or serine (S)/threonine (T) residues of a protein, thereby leading to its activation or deactivation. Catalyzed by kinase enzymes 3. Dephosphorylation Removal of phosphate groups from Y or S/T residues of a protein, thereby leading to its activation or deactivation. Catalyzed by phosphatase enzymes 4. Pre-initiation complex (PIC) Macromolecular assembly of different transcription factors at the promoter for the start of transcription. 5. Enhanceosome Macromolecular assembly of different transcription factors and coactivator proteins at the promoter and enhancers of a gene for the stimulation of its transcription 6. Cytoskeleton Internal system of protein microfilaments (actin) and microtubules (tubulin) rods for intracellular support, movement, and trafficking materials 7. Kinesins Motor proteins that move along microtubules to transport molecules and other particles to different cellular locations 8. Maternal effects Here, refers to proteins and RNAs, produced by mother and concentrated in her eggs, which direct the early development of her offspring (e.g., bcd, nos , and hb-m mRNA) 9. Concentration gradient Density of protein or RNA varies gradually from one cellular or embryonic location to another, thereby introducing a polarity in the cell or developing embryo 10. Polar granules Vesicles (packages) of proteins and RNAs, deposited by the mother in her eggs and responsible for germ line formation in her offspring -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- EUKARYOTIC GENE REGULATION More complex than bacterial gene regulation 1. Much larger genomes (e.g., 4.6 mb for E. coli versus 3.2 gb for human) 2. Complex eukaryotic chromosomes, with lots of protein and RNA packaging 3. Eukaryote multicellularity, which requires cell-to-cell communication and coordination over space and time 4. Eukaryotic nuclear and cellular membranes (not just cellular) 5. Bacteria
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