314Lecture12-VelocityandTimeOnline

# 314Lecture12-VelocityandTimeOnline - Lecture 12 Velocity...

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Video: Time Dilation, part 1-3 (see ‘Video’, ‘Time’, four video clips) Demonstration of an experiment that demonstrates an internal imperfection describing a phenomenon: Galvanometer: instrument for detecting and measuring electric current. Experiment: Part A: Take a galvanometer and move the loop through a bar magnet -- the beam moves indicating there is an electric current in the loop. Part B: Move the bar magnet through the loop, the same things occurs. The magnet causes an electric current to flow (19 th century discovery) by applying force to an electric charge. An electric field is the space surrounding an electric charge (the concept of an electric field was introduced by Michael Faraday). In the first part of the experiment: the loop is stationary and the bar magnet moves into the loop. This is described by the equation for an electric field: F = qE Where F = electric force, q = its charge, E = electric field This is one explanation of the experiment, and the equation describes the phenomenon perfectly well. In the second part of the experiment: the bar magnet moves through a stationary loop. In this case, the charges are moving and crossed into the magnetic field of the bar magnet: F = q v x R Where qv = velocity of charge, R = magnetic field (it is interesting to note that no one knows what magnetic fields are made of) The entire equation is: F = qE + q v x R The disquieting result is that there are two completely different and independent explanations for the exact same phenomenon. They each work perfectly, but Einstein was bothered by this. The fact that there were two independent explanations for one phenomenon just wasn’t elegant. No one else was disturbed by this, just Einstein. He was bothered by the lack of internal consistency or perfection of the theory. There shouldn’t be two different independent ways to explain the exact same thing. 1

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314Lecture12-VelocityandTimeOnline - Lecture 12 Velocity...

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