Lecture27S11 - BIS101/Engebrecht Lecture27 June 2, 2011 The...

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BIS101/Engebrecht Lecture27 June 2, 2011 The last subject we will cover in this class is genomics = the study of all genes in an organism. This emerging field will continue to play a prominent role in science as well as your life. There are many ethical, political, and economic implications of biological research that become very apparent in the present day applications of recombinant DNA technology and genomics. Structural genomics: Structural genomics refers to whole genome DNA sequencing. This is accomplished by combining existing genetic maps with large clones (BACs and YACs = bacterial artificial chromosomes and yeast artificial chromosomes) to map the pieces of DNA relative to each other. This has been driven by technology development for sequencing. The analysis of the human genome sequence relies on bioinformatics, computer analysis that can predict such things as which ORF (open reading frame) is read by the cellular machinery and what splice sites are used. Remember that a piece of coding DNA (with introns removed) can be translated in 6 different ways (3 forward and 3 backwards, think about this). We need computers to process all of these possibilities. What we have learned from the human genome project (thus far): 1) At least 45% of the DNA is repetitive (retrotransposons – LINES/SINES; VNTRs; CNV = copy number variation). 2) Only 1-3% encodes for exons!! 3) The average gene has 10 exons and ~60% of all genes undergo alternative splicing with an average of 3 splice variants. This more than doubles the number of proteins encoded for by the DNA sequence. Comparative Genomics: Comparative genomics is the analysis and comparison of genomes from different species. 800 genomes have been sequenced. This allows insight into how species evolved and determine function of genes. We saw that there is not a direct correlation between size of genome and the number of genes or the complexity of an organism. We also looked at human versus human comparisons. Surprisingly, there is less than 1% difference between different humans. Furthermore, many differences are due to duplications. These are referred to as copy number variation (CNV)-this is a very hot area of research because it is believed that these differences may explain disease traits. There are even differences in CNV between identical twins. Functional genomics:
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This note was uploaded on 06/05/2011 for the course BIS 101 taught by Professor Simonchan during the Spring '08 term at UC Davis.

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Lecture27S11 - BIS101/Engebrecht Lecture27 June 2, 2011 The...

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