CBP-TUCLecture1

CBP-TUCLecture1 - 1 Chemical & Biochemical...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–10. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: 1 Chemical & Biochemical Processes Lecture 1: Introduction to CBP & Reaction Engineering 2 Chemical & Biochemical Processes Chemical & Biochemical Processes considers the design of reactor-separator systems Reactor design uses information, knowledge and experience from a variety of areas - thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, fluid mechanics, heat and mass transfer, and economics. Reaction Engineering is the synthesis of all these factors with the aim of properly designing and understanding the chemical reactor. Raw Material Separation Process Reactor Separation Process Product 3 Chemical Process Example Production of Epoxide in the Propranolol Manufacturing Process Propranolol is used to make heart drugs by AstraZeneca The first step in the process is the reaction of 1-napthol and epichlorohydrin to form epoxide Further processes are needed to make the final drug (propranolol). 1-Napthol + Epichlorohydrin Chlorohydrin + Epoxide + Hydrochloric acid 2C 10 H 8 O + 2C 3 H 5 ClO C 13 H 12 O 2 Cl + C 13 H 13 O 2 + HCl 4 Schematic Process The first step is to carry out the reaction The second step is to remove excess epichlorohydrin by distillation (under reduced pressure) Reactor 1-Napthol Water Caustic Liquor (catalyst) Epichlorohydrin (Excess) Epoxide, by-products Unreacted Epichlorohydrin Dis tilla tion Epichlorohydrin & water Epoxide solution 5 The Industrial Process In practice distillation is carried out in the same vessel as reaction, by heating the vessel 1-Napthol/water Caustic liquor Epichlorohydrin Epoxide solution Epichlorohydrin & water distillate Steam / cooling water Vent 6 What can we learn about this process? Some reactants are dissolved in a solvent such as water or an organic compound A catalyst is needed to speed up or initiate the reaction One of the reactants is added in excess By-products are formed as well as the main products The product mixture contains unreacted material which must be separated off 7 Biochemical processes Involve reactions in which enzymes act as catalysts Living cells involve complex chemical processes controlled from a master "computer disc", the genome. The instructions are fed through molecular machines and produce catalysts, the enzymic proteins. These proteins catalyse the synthesis of a great variety of molecules from alcohol in beer to antibiotics such as penicillin. 8 Example Whisky Making 1. Malting The barley must first be malted, that is germinated, to convert the starches in each grain into soluble sugars. 2. Brewing The brewing is split into two stages. The first stage is mashing. Hot water is added to the milled malt, grist , and the mixture is fed into the mash tun 9 Whisky making continued. ....
View Full Document

Page1 / 47

CBP-TUCLecture1 - 1 Chemical & Biochemical...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 10. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online