Material Balance I

Material Balance I - Fundamentals of Material Balances I...

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Fundamentals of Material Balances I Textbook:  Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes, 3rd Edition, (2000). Richard M. Felder. (Wiley)
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Lecture outline Open vs. closed systems Process classification: Batch process Continuous process Semi-batch process General balance equation Continuous steady-state Integral balances on batch processes Integral balances on semi-batch processes
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What is stoichiometry? Stoichiometry deals with estimating the composition before and after a chemical reaction In simple terms it is like doing a balance sheet Example: balancing your household expenses It is also sometimes referred to as process calculations This is an important segment of chemical engineering education you will learn in your sophomore year
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What are parameters? Parameters are the terms that assist in making a balance They are also used extensively in other “pillars” of chemical engineering Classification Independent parameters Dependent parameters We will see some parameters and its uses today!
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Pillars of chemical engineering Stoichiometry Fluid mechanics  Mass transport Heat transport Unit operations transport Chemical reaction engineering Welcome to Chemical Engineering
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Some common definitions used in stoichiometry Refresher Periodic table Molecular weight: weight of a molecule Atomic weight : weight of an atom Atomic number: Number of protons in an atom Moles: a combination of several atoms (or molecules) in 0.012 kg of carbon. Avogadro number : a specific number of atoms/ molecules present in 1 mol. The Avogadro number is 6.023 x 1023 atom/mol.
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Refresher…contd. Specific gravity : It is the ratio of the density of a material to the density of water (reference) Molarity : Measure of concentration. It is the number of moles of a molecule per liter of solution Normality : measure of concentration. It is a number of solute gram equivalents per liter of solution Molality : It is a number of solute gram equivalents per 1 kilogram of solvent Avogadro law Dalton law
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Refresher…contd. Avogadro law: Identical volume of different gasses contain identical number of molecules Assumption: both gases are at same temperature and pressure where: V is the volume of the gas. n is the amount of substance of the gas. k is a proportionality constant. Dalton law It is a law relating partial pressure of gas to total pressure of gas It states: sum of partial pressure = total pressure Assumption: temperature is constant and the gas molecules in the mixture do not react with each other. Where represent the partial pressure of each component.
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STP and NTP conditions STP: Standard temperature and pressure It is the properties of air at a given condition of temperature (20 ° C), and pressure (1 atm or 101 kPa) NTP: Normal temperature and pressure It is the properties of air at a given condition of temperature (0 ° C or 32 ° F), and pressure (1 atm or 101 kPa) V = 22.4136 m3/kmol or L/mol
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Material Balance I - Fundamentals of Material Balances I...

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