Lecture 5Functions and directions: Main FunctionsCommunication serves four major functions within a group or organization:1.Control•Organizations have authority hierarchies and formal guidelines that employees are required to follow. •Informal communication also controls behavior. •When work groups tease or harass a member who produces too much, they are informally communicating with, and controlling, the member’s behavior. 2.Motivation•Clarifies to employees what is to be done, how well they are doing and what can be done to improve performance. •The formation of specific goals, feedback on progress towards the goals and reinforcement of desired behavior all stimulate motivation and require communication.3.Emotional expression•Communication provides a release for the emotional expression of feelings and for fulfilment of social needs. •For many employees, their work group is a primary source of social interaction. 4.Information•Communication facilitates decision making. •It provides information by transmitting the data to identify and evaluate choices. Q: Communication processThe steps between a source and a receiver that result in the transfer and understanding of meaning.Functions and directions:Describe the communication process The sender initiates a message by encoding a thought. The message is the actual physical product of the sender’s encoding. The channel is the medium through which the message travels.Formal channels are established by the organization and transmit messages related to the professional activities of members. They traditionally follow the authority chain within the organization.Other forms of messages, such as personal or social, follow informal channels, which are spontaneous and subject to individual choice.The receiver is the person(s) to whom the message is directed, who must first translate the symbols into understandable form. This step is the decoding of the message. Noise represents communication barriers that distort the clarity of the message, such as perceptual problems, information overload, semantic difficulties, or cultural differences. The final link in the communication process is a feedback loop. Feedback is the check on how successful we have been in transferring our messages as originally intended.It determines whether understanding has been achievedDownward communication flows from one level to a lower level. •Assign goals, provide instructions, communicate policies and procedures and provide feedback.•Downward communication must explain the reasons why a decision was made.•Explanations increase employee commitment and support of decisions.