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APRIL 2008 - SECTION A Answer ALL questions(40 1 Explain...

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SECTION A. Answer ALL questions. (40%) 1. Explain the following terms: a. Enthalphy (4 marks) b. Entrophy (4 marks) c. Gibbs free energy (4 marks) d. Internal energy (4 marks) e. Reversible and Irreversible process (4 marks) 2. Name the following compounds: a. (2 marks) b. COOH OH (2 marks) c. (2 marks) d. (2 marks) e. (2 marks) 1
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3. Complete the following equations: a. (2.5 marks) b. (2.5 marks) c. (2.5 marks) d. (2.5 marks) SECTION B: Answer any THREE questions. (60%) 1. a. Explain the method of preparation of primary, secondary and tertiary amines. (10 marks) b. What are the applications of amines? (10 marks) 2. a. State the basic assumptions of the kinetic theory as it applies to gases. (5 marks) b. Discuss in detail on the first and second law of Thermodynamics with necessary diagrams. (15 marks) 2
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3. a. Explain in detail on the preparation of aldehyde and on preparation of ketone. (10 marks) b. Discuss the properties of aldehyde and ketone. (10 marks) 4. a. Discuss in detail about the principle of Mass Spectrometry. (7 marks) b. Explain the functioning of the Mass Spectrometer with necessary diagram (10 marks) c. Mention few applications of the Mass Spectrometer. (3 marks) (END OF THE QUESTION PAPER) 3
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ANSWERS SECTION A 1. a . Enthalpy, symbolized by H, also called heat content, is the sum of the internal energy of a thermodynamic system plus the energy associated with work done by the system on the atmosphere which is the product of the pressure times the volume. Enthalpy is a quantifiable state function, and the total enthalpy of a system cannot be measured directly; the enthalpy change of a system is measured instead. the difference in enthalpy is the maximum amount of thermal energy derivable from a thermodynamic process in which the pressure is held constant (4 marks) b. Entropy, S is a measure of dispersal or disorder. It can be measured with a calorimeter. Assumes in a perfect crystal at absolute zero, no disorder and S = 0. If temperature change is very small, can calculate entropy change, DS = q/T (heat absorbed / T at which change occurs). Sum of DS can give total entropy at any desired temperature. (4 marks) c. G is a measure of the maximum magnitude of the net useful work that can be obtained from a reaction! G system = - T S universe = H system - T S system G system or G rxn. If negative, then product-favored. If positive, then reactant- favored. G reaction = G (products) - G (reactants) (4 marks) d. Internal Energy The internal energy of a thermodynamic system, or a body with well-defined boundaries, denoted by U , or sometimes E , is the total of the kinetic energy due to the motion of molecules (translational, rotational, vibrational) and the potential energy associated with the vibrational and electric energy of atoms within molecules or crystals. It includes the energy in all the chemical bonds, and the energy of the free, conduction electrons in metals.
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