Soci exam 2 study guide

Soci exam 2 study guide - Compare and contrast 1 Sex and...

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Compare and contrast 1. Sex and gender – chapter 7 a. Sex – the category of male or female, determined by fundamental biological characteristics b. Gender – the category of masculine or feminine, determined by societal expectations for behavior and ways of relating to others based on sex 2. Race and racial formation – chapter 7 a. Race – a category into which people are assigned based on the social meaning and significance given to certain physical (and sometimes cultural) characteristics of members of a society’s population i. So race is a social construction which changes over time due to historical and social pressures. We see this in how people in the U.S have dealt with issues such as slavery, immigration, and other historical events when dealing with how to define certain groups of people. It does not have anything to do with biology! Instead, race is a social classification that has cultural ramifications and reinforces the social order we see today. Think of how you would see individuals today. Make a pyramid...normally that would go whites, what would go next...Asian (the model minority), next...hispanics maybe...Blacks on the bottom of this pyramid. Its always changing because right now it seems Mexicans have switched with Blacks in some ways when we talk about boarder control. b. Racial formation – according to Omi and Winant, the process in which the dominant groups establish the content and importance of racial categories i. Racial Formation would then be the process by which these designations of race are created and manipulated. Racial formation explains the definition and redefinition of specific race identities. So how are these races created! impression of individuals upon perceiving a person's race and by court decisions usually. Remember during the history of paying reparations for Native Americans. You were considered a Native American if you proved to show how much Native "blood" you acutally had. 3. Class and caste – chapter 7
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a. Class – A system of structured social inequality in which people’s  status is determined by the ownership and control of resources and  on the kinds of work people perform i. In a capitalist society, class location also affects life chances  (the extent to which people have access to important scarce  resources) b. Caste – A system of structured social inequality in which people’s  status is permanently determined at birth based on their parents’  ascribed characteristics i. Such a system affects individuals’ life chances as it  determines access to important and scarce resources 4. Wealth and income – chapter 7 a. Wealth – the value of the assets or property that one owns b. Money received in the form of hourly wages or annual salaries, or government benefits, or return on investements 5. Deviance and crime – chapter 9 a. Deviance – behavior or a condition of being that is in violation of or departs from social norms b.
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