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Basic Network Concepts - Basic Networks Concepts May-2011...

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Basic Networks Concepts May-2011 Ayman Boghdady Page 1
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Internet Connections The Internet is the largest data network on earth. The Internet consists of a multitude of interconnected networks both large and small. Connection to the Internet can be broken down into the physical connection, the logical connection, and the application. A physical connection is made by connecting a specialized expansion card such as a modem or a network interface card (NIC) from a computer (PC) to a network. The physical connection is used to transfer signals between PCs within the local network and to remote devices on the Internet. A physical connection is made by connecting a specialized expansion card such as a modem or a network interface card (NIC) from a computer (PC) to a network. The physical connection is used to transfer signals between PCs within the local network and to remote devices on the Internet. The logical connection uses standards called protocols. A protocol is a formal description of a set of rules and conventions that govern how devices on a network communicate. Ayman Boghdady Page 2
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Connections to the Internet may use multiple protocols. The application that interprets the data and displays the information in an understandable form is the last part of the connection. Applications work with protocols to send and receive data across the Internet. A web browser displays Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) as a web page. File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is used to download files and programs from the Internet. PC Basics Computers are important building blocks in a network. It is important to be able to recognize and name the major components of a PC. Many networking devices are themselves special purpose computers, with many of the same components as normal PCs. Network Interface Card (NIC) Ayman Boghdady Page 3
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A network interface card (NIC) is a printed circuit board that provides network communication capabilities to and from a personal computer. Also called a LAN adapter, it resides in a slot on the motherboard and provides an interface connection to the network media. TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is a set of protocols or rules developed to allow cooperating computers to share resources across a network. To enable TCP/IP on the workstation, it must be configured using the operating system tools. Ping Ping is a utility used to verify Internet connectivity. The ping command works by sending multiple IP packets to a specified destination. Each packet sent is a request for a reply. Ayman Boghdady Page 4
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The ping command is used to test the NIC transmit/receive function, the TCP/IP configuration, and network connectivity.
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