chap 47 bio - The Musculoskeletal System Chapter 47 Click...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style The Musculoskeletal System Chapter 47
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22 Three Types of Skeletal Systems Changes in movement occur because muscles pull against a support structure, called the skeletal system -Zoologists recognize three types: - Hydrostatic skeletons - Exoskeletons - Endoskeletons
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33 Hydrostatic Skeletons Are found primarily in soft-bodied invertebrates, both terrestrial and aquatic Locomotion in earthworms -Involves a fluid-filled central cavity and surrounding circular & longitudinal muscles -A wave of circular followed by longitudinal muscle contractions move fluid down body -Produces forward movement
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44 Hydrostatic Skeletons Fig. 47.1 – Locomotion in earthworms – using a hydrostatic skeleton.
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55 Hydrostatic Skeletons Locomotion in aquatic invertebrates -Occurs by fluid ejections or jetting -Jellyfish produce regular pulsations in bell -Squeezing some of water contained beneath the bell. -Squids fill mantle cavity with sea water -Muscular contractions expel water forcefully through the siphon , and the animal shoots backward
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66 Two examples of hydrostatic skeletons in aquatic environments Jellyfish and …. .
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77 Squid – what is the name of the “ giant squid ”?
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88 Exoskeletons The exoskeleton surrounds the body as a rigid hard case - Composed of chitin in arthropods An exoskeleton provides protection for internal organs and a site for muscle attachment -However , it must be periodically shed , in order for the animal to grow – molting. - It also limits body size
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99 Endoskeletons Endoskeletons are rigid internal skeletons that form the body’s framework and offer surfaces for muscle attachment -Echinoderms have calcite skeletons, that are made of calcium carbonate -Bone, on the other hand, is made of calcium phosphate – hydroxyapatite.
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1010 Endoskeletons Vertebrate endoskeletons have bone and/or cartilage -Bone is much stronger than cartilage, and much less flexible Unlike chitin, bone and cartilage are living tissues-even though cartilage lacks a blood supply - They can change and remodel in response to injury or physical stress
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1111 Endoskeletons The vertebrate endoskeleton is divided into: - Axial skeleton = Forms axis of the body -Supports the body and protects internal organs - Appendicular skeleton = Set of limb bones and their associated pectoral girdle (forelimbs) or pelvic girdle (hindlimbs)
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1212 Fig. 47.2 – Exoskeleton and endoskeleton – note difference between “axial” and “appendicular” skeletons in the latter!!!!!
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1313 Bone Bone is a hard but resilient connective tissue that is unique to vertebrates Bones can be classified by the two fundamental modes of development -Intramembranous development (simple) -E.g.: External bones of skull -Endochondral development (complex) -E.g.: Bones that are deep in the body
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Bone has other functions besides support for movement Protects organs, nerves, brain, spinal cord Provides attachment for muscles. Provides the site for the production of red
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This note was uploaded on 06/06/2011 for the course BIOL 1105 at Virginia Tech.

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chap 47 bio - The Musculoskeletal System Chapter 47 Click...

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